BIOL 1004 Lecture Notes - Ecosystem Management, Overfishing

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30 Jan 2013
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conversions in tropical and subtropical terrestrial ecosystems have been particularly rapid
from 1970-2000, about 20% of coral reefs were lost and another 20% were degraded
6 times as much water is held in reservoirs then in natural rivers
amount of water withdrawn from rivers has doubled
food production contributes the most to economic development and employment
22% of of world's population is employed in agriculture
40% live in agriculturally based households
What Options Exist To Manage Ecosystems Sustainably?
Total economic value of a sustainably managed ecosystem is higher than that of an intensively
exploited one (ie. clear-cut logging or intensive agriculture)
collapse of the Newfoundland cod fishery in the 1990s due to overfishing resulted in the loss of
many jobs
many ecosystems are considered public goods that have no market value
elimination of subsidies that promote excessive exploitation of ecosystems may encourage
sustainable ecosystem management
from 2001-2003 governments of developed countries subsidized domestic agriculture
by more than $324B
led to greater food production than mark warranted and promoted excessive use of
fertilizers
sustainable use of freshwater can be achieved by charging users full cost of
providing the water, using water more effectively in agriculture and alter allocation
of water rights
sustainable use of marine fisheries can be achieved by establishing more marine
protected reserves and flexible no-take zones where fish can grow
implement a limit to the number of fishing permits can increase economic
value of fishery
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