BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Sympathetic Nervous System, Reuptake, Mania

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Published on 30 Jan 2013
Linkage analysis is a method in molecular genetics hat is used to study ppl. Use this method in
families in which a disorder is heavily concentrated
they collect diagnostic info and blood samples from affected indiv and their relatives and use
them to study the inheritance patter of characteristics whose genetics are fully understood
referred to as genetic markers ex: eye colour is controlled by a gene in a specific location on a
specific chromosome
it is concluded that the gene predisposing indi to the psychopathology is on the same
chromosome and in similar location on that chromate (its linked) as the gene controlling the
other chracterticsi
linkage analysis in t.o found association btwn obsessive compulsive disorder and the gamma
aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor 1 (GABBR1) gene
greatest success is to identify genes that are imp in alzhinermers
study of genetic linkage in adolescents and young adults indicated that a locus on chromosome
9 is associated with enhanced risk for externalizing psychopathology (aggression and conduct
gene environment interactions notion that a disorder or related symptoms are the joint
product of a genetic vulnerability and specific environmental experiences or conditions
Neuroscience and biochemistry in the Nervous system
the NS is composed of billions of neurons
neurons diff in some ways each neuron has four major parts: 1) the cell body 2) several
dendrites 3) three or more axons of varying lengths 4) terminal buttons on many end branches
of the axon
when a neuron is stimulated at its cell body or through its dendrites a nerve impulse which is a
change in the electric potential of the cell travels down the axon to the terminal endings
between the terminal endings f the sending axon and the cell membrane of the receiving
neuron there is a small gap called the synapse
for a nerve impulse to pass from one neuron to another and for communication to occur the
impulse must have a way of bridging the synaptic gap
the terminal buttons of each axon contain synaptic vesicles, small structures that are filled with
neurotransmitters, chemical substances that allow a nerve impulse to release molecules of their
transmitter substances and these molecules flood the synapses and diffuse toward the receiving
or postsynaptic neuron
the cell membrane of the postsynaptic cell contains proteins called receptor sites that are
configured so that specific neurotransmitters can fit into them
when a neurotransmitter fits into a receptor site a message can be sent to the postsynaptic cell.
What actually happens to the postsynaptic neuron depends on its integrating thousands of
similar messages
sometimes the messages are excitatory leading to the creation of a nerve impulse in the
postsynaptic cell at other times the messages can be inhibitory making the postsynaptic cell less
likely to fire
once a presynaaptic neuron (the sending neuron) has released its neurotransmitter the last step
is for the synapse to be returned to its normal state
not all of the released neurotransmitter has found its way to postsynaptic receptors. Some of
what remains in the synapses is broken down by enzymes and some is pumped back into the
presynaptic cell through a process called reuptake
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