BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Existentialism, Existential Therapy, Unconditional Positive Regard
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Ego analysis belief in a set of ego functions that are primarily conscious, capable of controlling
both id instincts We must look at the way they experience events rather than at the events
Healthy people are aware of their behaviour, emphasises the desirability of being aware of
Healthy people are innately good and effective. They can become ineffective and disturbed only
when faulty learning intervenes.
Healthy people are purposive and goal directed. They do not respond passively to the influence
of their environment or to their inner drives.
Therapists should create conditions that will facilitate independent decision-making by the client
Roger’s Therapeutic Intervention:
- Avoided imposing goals on the client during therapy. The client is to take the lead and direct the
course the course of the conversation and the session. The therapists job is to create the
conditions that, during the session, help the client return to his basic nature and judge which
course of life is intrinsically gratifying.
- Unconditional positive regard: the therapist accepts the person for who he is.
- Two types of empathy:
o Primary empathy:
Refers to the therapist’s understanding, accepting, and communicating to the
client what the client is thinking or feeling.
o Advanced empathy:
Involves and interpretation by the therapist of the meaning of what the client is
thinking and feeling.
The therapist offers something new, a perspective that he hopes is better, more
productive and that implies new modes of action.
- Client-centred therapy concentrates on clients adopting frameworks different from those they
had upon beginning treatment.
Humanism stresses the goodness of human nature. It holds that if unfettered by groundless fears and
societal restrictions, human beings will develop normally, even exceptionally.
Existentialism is gloomier. Although it embraces free will and responsibility, it stresses the anxiety that
is inevitable in making important choices.
Avoiding choices may protect people from anxiety, but it also deprives them of living a life with
The Goals Of Existential Therapy: