BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Clinical Formulation, Alexithymia, Criterion Validity
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o Rorschach inkblots tend to use inner resources when coping with their needs, whereas those whose
Roschach responses involve colour are more likely to seek interaction with the environment.
o The system may have more validity in some cases than in others. It appears to have utility in identifying
people with schizophrenia or at risk of developing it.
o The utility of the Rorschach can most likely be attributed to the fact that a person’s responses on the test
are highly related to the communication disturbances that are an important symptom of schizophrenia.
o The Roberts Apperception Test for Children; much like the thematic Apperception test TAT, in this test,
pictures of children and families are presented to the child, who tells a story about each ne.
Whereas many scoring approaches to the TAT are impressionistic and non-standardized, the
Roberts test provides objective criteria for scoring, along with normative data to determine
whether the child’s pattern of responses is abnormal.
Unique to this test are the scales that provide information about a child’s coping skills.
(1) Intelligence Tests:
o Intelligence test: often reffered to as an IQ test, is a standardizes means of assessing a person’s current
o All based on the assumption that a detailed sample of an individual’s current intellectual functioning can
predict how well he/she will erform in school.
o Intelligence tests are also used:
In conjunction with achievement tests, to diagnose learning disabilities and to identify areas of
strengths and weaknesses for academic planning;
To help determine whether a person is mentally retarded;
To identify intellectually gifted children
As part of neuropsychological evaluations (eg; person with dementia to test deterioration over
o Scores on most IQ tests are standardizes so that 100 is the mean and 15/16 is the standard deviation.
Those with a score below 70 are 2 SD below pop mean = sub-average intellectual functioning. Those with
130 = intellectually gifted.
o IQ tests are highly reliable, have good criterion validity.
o Predict later educational attainment and occupational success.
o Hough the correlations between IQ scores and school performance are statistically significant, much more
is unexplained by IQ test scores than is explained (family situation, contributing factors...)
o Interest has also focuses on emotional intelligence, reflected in such abilities as delaying gratification and
being sensitive to the needs of others.
o High levels of emotional intelligence are associated negatively with alexithymia, a condition of reduced
awareness that is a risk factor for a variety of adjustment problems. High levels of emotional intelligence
are associated with greater levels of subjective well-being and reduced proneness to depression.
BEHAVIOURAL AND COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT:
traditional assessment concentrates on measuring underlying personality structures and traits, such as obsessiveness...
behavioural and cognitively oriented clinicians often use a system that involves the assessment of four sets of variables,
sometimes referred to by the acronym SORC.
S stands for stimuli, the environmental situations that precede the problem.
O stands for organismic, referring to both psychological and psychological factors assumed to be
operating under the skin.
R refers to overt responses. These probably receive the most attention from behavioural
clinicians, who must determine what behaviour is problematic, as well as the behaviours
frequency intensity and form.
C refers to consequent variables, events that appear to be reinforcing or punishing the behaviour
As might be expected, O variable are underplayed by Skinnerians, who focus more on observable stimuli and
responses and C variables receive less attention from cognitively oriented behaviour therapists than do O variables
because these therapists’ paradigm does not emphasize reinforcement.