BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone, Monoamine Oxidase A, Interpersonal Psychotherapy

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30 Jan 2013
This tendency was especially evident among people high in autonomy. Depression and martial discord
frequently co-occur.
Constant seeking of reassurance is a critical variable in depression. Even when reassured, they are
only temporarily satisfied. Their negative self-concept causes them to doubt the truth o the feedback
they have received, and their constant efforts to be reassured come to irritate others.
Social skills deficits may be a cause and consequence of depression.
patients with bipolar depression have elevated levels of the dysfunctional attitudes described by
Beck, as well as problems in autobiographical memory and the ability to generate solutions in problem-
solving task. The manic phase of the disorder is seen as a defence against a debilitating psychological
bipolar disorder is one of the mot heritable of disorders. Genes account for possibly 85% of variance
in whether a person becomes manic.
Evidence favouring the hypothesis that bipolar disorder results from a dominant gene on the 11th
Within bipolar disorder, variation in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene appears to
predict risk for developing rapid cycling. Some people seem to be genetically predisposed to the onset of
MDD when confronted with a series of adverse life-events.
Serotonin transporter gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), which is involved in modulating
serotonin levels, is a significant predictor of first major depression onset following multiple adverse
The original theory posited that low levels of norepinephrine and dopamine lead to depression and
high levels to mania. The serotonin theory suggests that serotonin, a neurotransmitter presumed to play
a role in the regulation of norepinephrine, also produces depression and mania. However, the weight of
the evidence does not completely support the notion that levels of neurotransmitters are critical in the
mood disorders.
Tricylclic drugs: i.e. imipramine, or Tofranil are group of antidepressant medications so named
because their molecular structure is characterized by three fused rings. They prevent some of the
reuptake of norepinephrine, serotonin and or dopamine by the presynaptic neuron after it has fired,
leaving more of the neurotransmitter in the synapse so that transmission of the next nerve impulse is
made easier.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors: I.e. Tranylcypromine or Parnate are antidepressant drugs that
keep the enzyme MAO from deactivating neurotransmitters, thus increasing the levels of serotonin,
norepinephrine and or dopamine in the synapse. This action produces the same facilitating effect
decried for tricylics, compensating for the abnormally low levels of these neurotransmitters in
depressed people.
Newer antidepressants, called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, i.e fluoxetine or Prozac, act
more selectivel, specifically inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin.
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