BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Incest, Pedophilia, Aversion Therapy

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30 Jan 2013

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Chapter 14: Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
Sexual and gender identity disorder: full range of human sexual thoughts, feelings and actions that are
generally regarded as abnormal and dysfunctional
Sexual identity our sense of ourselves as male or female
Sexual Orientation our preference for the sex of a partner
Characteristics of Gender Identity Disorder (GID)
Transsexualism people with gender identity disorders are sometimes referred to as this; they feel deep
within themselves (usually from early childhood) that they are of the opposite sex
Transvestism cross-dress for sexual pleasure but do not identify themselves as of opposite sex (GIDNOS)
They may want to pass as a member of the opposite sex or even have surgery
GID is different from GIDNOS (gender identity disorder not otherwise) since that involves symptoms that meet
GID but there are some symptoms that do not
In childhood associated with cross-gender behaviours dressing in opposite-sex clothes, preferring opposite-
sex playmates, and engaging in play that would be more typical of the opposite sex
They are usually recognized by their parents at age 2-4 & GID is 6.6x more frequent in boys than girls:
Social factors associated with disorder and many factors determine decision to seek clinical assessment
Belief that the behaviour was no longer a phase that the child would grow out of
Threshold violation (wanting to dress certain way outside of home also)
Belief that the child was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or girl
Concerns about potential or actual rejection by peers
Most children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood, even without professional intervention;
many demonstrate homosexual orientation
GID people often experience anxiety and depression
GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorder
Prevalence rate 1/30,000 (men) 1/100,000-150,000 (women)
Causes of Gender Identity Disorder
More information is needed on the cause of GID in order to resolve this debate
Evidence indicates that gender identity is influenced by hormones
Other research shows that human and other primate offspring of mothers who have taken sex hormones during
pregnancy frequently behave like members of the opposite sex and have anatomical abnormalities or they
necessarily do not have abnormal gender identity but they sometimes did exhibit some cross-sex behaviours
Brain structures differences are also being investigated
Environment may play a huge factor as well (male patients report having distant relationships with their fathers;
females often report history of physical/sexual abuse)
Therapies for Gender Identity Disorder
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