BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Psychoticism, Novelty Seeking, Twin

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30 Jan 2013
Research also shows permanent nerve damage
Deaths can result from an overdose
Phencyclidine: angel dust/ was developed as a tranquilize for hoses and other large
animals, it causes serious negative reactions (severe paranoid and violence) coma and
death are also possible
Effects of Hallucinogens
Overflow from one sensory modality to another
Time passes slow
Loss of boundaries between one’s self and environment
Effects depend on the number of psychological variables in addition to the dose itself
(the persons attitudes, expectation and motivations)
Bad trip a full blown panic attack (fear of going crazy but its short lived)
Flashbacks: recurrence of psychedelic experiences after the physiological effects of
the drug have worn off, also sometimes occur, most frequently in times of stress,
illness and fatigue (haunts people for weeks or months after taking it)
Etiology of Substance Abuse and Dependence
The person must first have a positive attitude toward the substance, then begin to
experiment with using it, then begin using it regularly, then use it heavily and finally
abuse it and become dependent on it
Social Variables
Social world can affect people’s interest in and access to drug
Readily availability of the substance is also a factor
If both parents smoke, a child is 4x more likely to do so
Social milieu in which a person operates can affect substance abuse
The role of media must be considered
Advertising does influence smoking
Psychological Variables
Mood Alterations, Situations, and Role of cognition
Drinking occurs if the perceived benefits outweigh the costs
Drinking motives vary along 2 dimensions the valence of reinforcement (positive
vs. Negative) and locus (external reasons vs. internal personal reasons) 4
combinations are possible with these
o Drinking for +, internal reasons reflect drinking to enhance positive mood
o Drinking for - , internal reasons reflects drinking to reduce or avoid
experiencing negative emotions
o Drinking for +, external reasons reflects drinking to obtain social rewards
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