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theory of tolerance

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BIOL 1010
Amanda Helleman

 Conditioning theory of tolerance: underscores the need to jointly consider biological process and environmental stimuli that may be involved in the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviours  Feedforward mechanisms: defined as anticipatory regulatory responses made in anticipation of a drug. It reflect the fact that was learnt to anticipate drug effects before they actually occur  A study found that some people have a gene experience that has less reinforcement from nicotine and makes it less likely that they will be addicted and easily can quit Therapy for Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Admitting the Problem  Any deny that they have a problem  Enabling the drinker to take the first step to betterment is called contemplation stage and it can be achieved though questions that get at the issue somewhat indirectly Traditional Hospital Treatment  Detoxification : the withdrawal from alcohol, can be difficult both physically and psychologically and usually takes about 1 month  Tranquilizers are sometimes given to ease anxiety and general discomfort of withdrawal  To help get through withdrawal, the alcohol abuser also needs carbohydrate solutions, B vitamins and sometimes anticonvulsants  Inpatient approach is probably best for people with few sources and social support who are living in environment that encourage the alcohol abuse Biological Treatments  Some problem drinkers who are in treatment, inpatient or outpatient take disulfiram or Antabuse, a drug that discourages drinking by causing violent vomiting if alcohol is ingested (some studies showed no benefit)  Biological treatments are best viewed as adjunctive; that is they may offer some benefit when combined with a psychological intervention  Naltrexone, serotonin agonist buspirone, clonidine (reduce withdrawal effects)  Use of drugs to treat alcohol-abusing patients is risky because liver function is often impaired in the patient and metabolism of the drug can adversely affect the liver Alcoholics Anonymous  Largest most widely known self-help group in the world  Runs regular and frequent meeting at which newcomers rise to announce that they are alcoholics, and older, sober member give testimonials, relating the stories of their problem drinking and indicating how they lives are better now  They provide emotional support, understanding, and close counselling for the problem drinker as well as social life to relieve isolation  2 related
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