Class Notes (784,774)
Canada (481,351)
Biology (1,087)
BIOL 1010 (88)
Lecture 5

Lecture 5.doc

6 Pages
93 Views
Unlock Document

School
Carleton University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1010
Professor
James Cheetham
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 5 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 - PCR, then will move to agricultural biotech - Los Angeles Times- first (legal) clinical trial for stem cell therapy (spinal cord damage) o Geron Corporation o First embryonic stem cells used Lecture 4 - Polymerase Chain Reaction o Taq polymerase comes from special bacteria that live in hot springs (high temperature)- very stable o Keeps doubling strands of DNA- in 30 days, could have over one hundred billion samples o Crime scenes- could use a small fragment of person’s DNA and amplify o To stop poachers getting illegal fish, could amplify DNA and see if they’re taking endangered species - Kary Mullis o Cetus sold PCR for $300 million (paid him $10,000) o Thermus aquaticus- Taq o Nucleotides A, T,C, G - Used to have to grind up large amounts of tissue to replicate, too much trouble. With this, could make lots of copies with little material. - Topisomerase could untangle knots- we just heat it up to melt DNA - DNA Polymerase- Taq - Primase- we synthesize primer - dNTP o NTP (ex. GTP, CTP, ATP, TTP) - DNA Microarrays o All 22,000 genes on microscope slide, screen to see if they have mutations, etc. o Want to see what genes get turned on when blastocyst turns into tadpole o During development, what changes in gene expression o Reverse transcriptase- retrovirus- HIV, viruses that cause cancer use this o Lots of cDNA will bind well to a spot o Wash everything off- green is from blastotube, red is from tadpole, yellow is both genes being expressed o Ex. If I give yeast maltose or fructose, would this be better for beer? o Can buy chips and chip readers from various companies, or buy chips and have them analyse for you o Matabolonomics o Pharmacogenomics- 23 and Me Lecture 5: Agricultural Biotechnology - used to do traditional farming not too long ago (and still do in places like Albania)- not too much technology, horses, etc. - Fermentation and brewing have been used for thousands of years, but other aspects of biotechnology are more modern - Farmers have manipulated genetic makeup of plants and animals - Exploitation of natural variation that gave us crops and such - Selected for better plants/animals to domesticate - Breeding - Wild cattle selected to be smaller o Dangerous for humans to be big o More manageable - Phylogenetic trees (for mapping diseases/evolution) - Cats don’t have nearly as much variation as dogs o Phenotypic plasticity o Dog genome has been sequenced, trying to figure out how it’s so variated - Brassica is one of the biggest plant families we’ve bred for human consumption - Karpechenko- Soviet biologist (at time of Stalin) o Vegetable for proletariat o Radish roots + cabbage leaves (but very far apart species-wise) o Radish- eat all the root but waste the tops, cabbage- eat tops but waste all the roots o This way, wouldn’t waste any part of plant o Mitotic accident happened- could produce fertile hybrids o Actually wound up getting radish leaves and cabbage roots (totally unedible) o Inspired research later on hybridization between far away species o Stalin sent him to Siberia- arrested by NKVD for belonging to anti-Soviet group, died in 1971 o Science getting influenced by ideology, scientists getting killed for not doing it right - Green Revolution o Wheat that didn’t grow as tall and didn’t fall in wind to generate wheat strains with greater yields - Marquis wheat- resistant to rust (fungal disease) - Science Advisory Committee part of Green Revolution - Clive James has been studying world food production, poverty, hunger, etc. - Peru- government wants to tear out rainforest to use for agriculture- no room - Can move genes from different species - Gene silencing- proteins that code for allergens - Control gene turning on, where, etc. - Drugs- biopharming o Increase nutrition, pharmaceuticals, etc. - Desired characteristics- will focus on this - Transgenic plants contain gene from another species/genus - GMO used commonly instead of GEO - Spray bacteria on corn- produces toxins to kill off corn ear worm o 1) Cytolysins (blew up cells) o 2) Crystadeltalendotoxins (in guts of bugs- blew them up) o Cyt proteins that target beetles, flies o Cry proteins that target moths and butterflies o Different complements of cyt and cry to kill off different bugs o Scientists got corn to make BT toxin (from bacteria)- better than spraying surface because bug can crawl inside plant and will die o Toxin only affects bugs- they have specific protein it binds to in their gut (we don’t have this) o In cage where monarch butterflies are forced to eat Bt corn, die (environmental criticism). But in actual environment, they avoid this corn. - Agrobacterium tumefaciens: commonly occurring bacteria - Plant cells are hard to get genes into- have tough cell walls, uncooperative- sometimes use gene guns - Plant Genetic Engineering Process o Cut out gene with restriction enzymes o Transformation: introducing foreign DNA into cell - Other than machinery for transformation, low-cost process - TI plasmid- special property- has region of DNA that causes it to be incorporated into genomic DNA of plant cell o Can alter TI plasmid to have gene that you want o Insert into plant- seal with ligase o Gene gets incorporated into DNA (genome of plant) o Each daughter cell has gene of interest- entire transgenic plant o Works well on broad-leaf plants (ie. soy bean plants) - Gene gun technique o Used for corn, rice, wheat (agrobacterium doesn’t work) o Biolistic particle delivery system o Penetrates plant cell walls o DNA incorporated into plant cell with new gene- daughter cells - Electroporation o Remove cell wall with enzymes- make protoplast (cell without cell wall) o Electroporation- make small holes o DNA with gene of interest gets into cell, genome o Cell wall grows back - Marker gene to make sure plant has gene of interest - Plant genes have control regions too - Transgenic technology- gene from wide range of species (bacteria --> corn) - Corn, soybean, papaya, squash --> GMOs - GMO: transgenic organism - Herbicide tolerance- resistant to glyphosphate (herbicide for weeds) - Plastic potat
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1010

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.

Submit