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Lecture 3

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1010
Professor
James Cheetham
Semester
Fall

Description
DNA, Genes, Chromosomes, Genetics and Heredity Tuesday, September 28, 2010 - last lecture on background material - 30 questions multiple choice, matching questions test - Don’t get scared if you don’t understand things like Cohen paper- posted up for historical value- moving gene from one species to another - If you don’t understand slides, look at book - Don’t memorize parts of cell - We’re concerned with nucleus - Work we do at level of cell o Gene therapy for lymphoma: isolate bone marrow cell, filter out cancerous ones, grow others in petri dish, etc. o Trying to change DNA inside cell - Glossary on WebCT - DNA- hydrogen bonds- strands can be separated by heating them up (lab) - Cell can’t be warmed up- enzymes to unwind DNA- scientists call this the melting of DNA (we call it unwinding) - DNA replication is semi-conservative: one strand of each daughter cell comes from original strand - We use those enzymes as tools to manipulate DNA in the lab, will learn about them - DNA in uncondensed form (chromatin): necessary for replication, because DNA strands have to unwind - Karyotype: picture of chromosomes o Tell gender by last pair of chromosomes - One chromosome comes from each parent- before cell divides, you have homologous pairs - Don’t have to memorize cell cycle- just know that interphase takes up most of time, only see chromosomes during cell division - Cycle regulated even with yeast- always stay same size- whi genes control when yeast will divide - Meiosis: generate sex cells- explains natural breeding (DNA from mother and father are slightly rearranged) o Cloning gets around this o Dangers  Every time you replicate DNA, telomeres get shorter  Cells die because you can’t replicate DNA anymore- theory of aging  Skin cells get 70-90 reps  *If population is genetically homogenous, and disease comes along, everyone will die- we need different alleles  * Think of this when we study agricultural biotechnology - Meiosis I- crossing over (telomeres mix up) - Meiosis II- independent assortment - Need genetic diversity for natural selection to work - Genetic programming- encode programs as chromosomes- evolve a solution to equation- approach used to get good answers for a lot of MP hard problems - Computer scientists taking advantage of biology - Trying to separate male and female sperm- could preselect gender of baby - 8,000,000 possible combinations of sperm in eggs- traditional breeding takes so long because of this- if we just put in genes for growth, time would be cut - Tetrad- two homologous chromosomes - Non-disjunction- abnormal- one cell gets one gamete and other gets three - Oogenesis- generating egg cells o Women are less busy- only one egg every now and then (other three cells become polar bodies) o Men: 250,000,000 sperm per day- full gametes - Egg and sperm: haploid - Somatic cells are body cells - Germ-line cells: egg/sperm- can also refer to stem cells o Genetic engineering in 1973- not allowed to manipulate germ-line- this would be passed on to subsequent generations- this is still law in most countries - *Somatic
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