BIOL 1103 Lecture Notes - Masseter Muscle, Transverse Sinuses, Levator Anguli Oris

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30 Jan 2013
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Introduction to the Head
I. Function
a. House/protect brain, meninges, and special sense organs
b. Respiration
c. Mastication (chewing) & deglutition (swallowing)
d. Vocalization
II. Scalp
a. Layers
S kin
C onnective Tissue
A poneurosis epicranialis(galea aponeurotica): joins frontalis m to occipitalis m
L oose connective tissue (areolar space): layer in which scalp moves relative to
skull; is UNDER muscles
* infections spread easily in this layer
P ericranium (periosteum)
b. Diploe of parietal bone: spongy layer of bone containing red marrow and diploic
veins (network w/in cranial bones that communicates with veins going between
skin and brain *important in spread of infection*
i. Diploic veins: run within cranial bones
ii. Emissary veins: pass thru cranial bones from brain to surface
III. Skull
a. Bones: 21 bones + mandible + hyloid + (3 ear bones)x2 = 29 bones in skull
b. Parts
i. Cranium: skull without mandible
ii. Neurocranium: “top” of skull; above eyes, ears, and posterior aspect
1. Bones: frontal, parietal (2), occipital (squamous portion),
temporal (2) (squamous portion), sphenoid (greater wing)
iii. Basicranium: inferior support of brain; contribute to interorbital region
(area beween eyes and superior to nasal passages)
1. Bones: occipital, temporal, ethmoid, sphenoid (lesser wing and
pterygoid plate
iv. Viscerocranium (splanchnocranium): bones of face (including mandible)
1. Bones: maxilla (2), palatine (2), zygomatic (2), lacrimal (2),
nasal (2), vomer, mandible, inferior nasal concha (2), Auditory
Ossicles – malleus, incus, & stapes (2 each), hyoid.
c. “Joints”
i. Sutures: Coronal, sagittal, lamdoidal, squamosal, lambda, bregma,
intermaxillary, metopic (superior to nasion)
ii. Fontanelles: anterior, posterior, posteriolateral (mastoid),
anteriolateral (sphenoid),
d. Cavities
i. Endocranial Cavity: contains brain/meninges/CSF/vascular supply
1. numerous foramina (holes allowing passage of neurovascular
bundles)
a. Foramen magnum= exit of sp. cord from endocranial cav.
External
Jugular
Vein
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2. floor is subdivided into fossae
a. anterior fossa: contains front lobes of brain
b. middle fossa: contains paired temporal lobes
c. posterior fossa: contains cerebellum & brainstem
ii. Orbits (2)
iii. Nasal Cavities
iv. Oral Cavity
v. Middle Ear Cavities
IV. Gross Anatomy of the Brain
a. Telencephalon (cerebrum)
i. Left and right hemispheres separated by longitudinal fissure
ii. Basal ganglia: nuclei in ventral telencephalon that control diff. fxns.
iii. Four lobes: Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
iv. Gyri: folds of brain tissue covering external surface (singular = gyrus)
v. Sulci: shallow grooves separating gyri (singular = sulcus)
b. Diencephalon: (Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus)
i. “central core” of brain; almost completely encased in telencephalon
ii. only visible from an inferior view of the infundibulum (pituitary location)
iii. CN II comes from here (optical tract)
c. Mesencephalon (midbrain)
i. Contains inferior and superior colliciul (vision and hearing)
ii. Cerebral aqueduct runs through it
iii. Invisible from outside
d. Pons (“Pons” = “bridge” in Latin)
i. Trigeminal N. (CN V) originates in pons
e. Medulla Oblongata
i. Continuous with spinal cord
ii. Abducens (CN VI), Facial (CN VII), & Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII)
originate at jxn between medulla oblongata and pons
iii. Glossopharangeal (CN IX), Vagus (CN X), Accesory (CN XI), &
Hypoglosseal (CN XII) originate from lateral aspects of med. oblong.
f. Cerebellum
i. Two hemispheres
ii. Responsible for much motor function
V. Ventricle System and Meninges
a. Ventricle System
i. Def: series of cavities/passages within brain filled with CSF
ii. Lateral—(R & L) lg cavities w/in cerebral hemispheres
iii. Interventricular Foramen—path between each lateral and 3rd ventricles
iv. Third Ventricle—between R/L parts of diencephalons
v. Cerebral Aqueduct—path between 3rd & 4th ventricles
vi. Fourth Ventricle—in pons/ med. oblong.; continuous w/ central sp. canal
b. CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid)
i. Fxn: cushion, bathe, & nourish the brain
ii. Continuously produced & turns over ~4-5 x per day
External
Jugular
Vein
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