BIOL 1103 Lecture Notes - Ossification, Vocal Tract, Exhalation

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30 Jan 2013
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Outline of Lecture 09
Larynx and Speech
I. Basic structure of the larynx
A. Cartilages: thyroid, cricoid (thin anteriorly), arytenoids (vocal and muscle
processes)
B. Membranes and ligaments
- Thyrohyoid membrane: extrinsic to larynx
- Cricothyroid membrane (aka conus elasticus): contains “true” vocal fold
- Quadrangular membrane (aka vestibular): contains “false” vocal fold
C. Muscles
- Extrinsics (suprahyoids and infrahyoids): hold tongue in position
- Intrinsics
- Vocal fold adductors: transverse, oblique, lateral crico-
arytenoids
- Vocal fold abductor: posterior cricoarytenoid
- Vocal fold adjustors: cricothyroid (tenses), thyroarytenoid and
vocalis
D. All together: mucous membrane draped over, complex structure
II. Speech
- Sounds produced by exhalation over vocal folds; air pressure changes cause
vibration of vocal folds and gives initial sound emanating from larynx
- Sounds modified by resonance and overtones of vocal tract
- Sound can be controlled via breathing (fast inhalation, controlled expiration)
- Thicker vocal folds dampen vibrations and give lower voices
- In infant, larynx is higher up and smaller, higher pitched
- In adult, ossification and fibrotic changes cause degeneration in vocal control
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