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BIOL 1104 (30)
Lecture

Leg Structure

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1104
Professor
Tamy Superle
Semester
Fall

Description
Knee, Leg, and Foot I. Knee Joint A. General: Femur is angled inward ~9degrees in order to ensure body weight is centered over each foot while walking. (> in females) B. Bones 1. Patella: largest sesamiod bone in body provides transfer point to straighten quadriceps line of action * lateral condyle is deeper than medial to prevent patella from being pulled laterally over knee increases quadriceps moment arm about knee 2. Femur: medial/ lateral condyles, intercondylar notch, patellar surface 3. Tibia: medial/lateral condyles, medial/lateral plateus, intercondylar eminence, tibial tuberosity C. Cartilege/ligaments/bursa 1. articular cartilege a. medial meniscus-attached to MCL, moon-shaped; (more often torn) b. lateral meniscus—not attached, circular-shaped c. coronary ligaments—attach menisci to tibia 2. Bursae: subcutaneous prepatellar, suprapatellar (continuous w/ synovial cav.), anserine (under lig of semitendinosus, sartorius, & gracilis) subcutaneous infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar 3. Ligaments: patellar—from apex of patella to tibial tuberosity; transmits quadriceps force fibular collateral—from lateral femoral condyle to fibular head; prevents side-to- side motion tibial collateral—from medial femoral condyle to tibia; prevents side-to-side motion ACL—from anterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the posterior lateral side of the lateral condyle of the femur; fxn: prevents anterior displacement of tibia on femur and hyperextension PCL—from posterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the anterior lateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur; prevents posterior displacement of tibia on femur and => flexion stability Oblique Popliteal—expansion of semitendinosus ligament, crosses knee from lateral to medial; relatively weak => extension stability Arcurate Popliteal—strengthens knee capsule posteriorly (in extension) by spreading over entire posterior aspect of knee D. Blood Supply Genicular branches of poplitial artery (superior medial/lateral, inferior medial/lateral, descending, middle), & recurrent branches of tibial artery (ant/post) E. Innervation Branches of obturator, femoral, tibial, & common peroneal nn. F. Muscles/Movements 1. Flexion  biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranousus, gastrocnemius  assisted by sartorius, gracilis, popliteus 2. Extention  quadriceps femoris  assisted by tensor fascia lata 3. Rotators  Medially: semimembranousus, semitendinosus, gracilis.  Laterally: biceps femoris 4. Knee Locking femur rotates ~20 degrees medially Popliteus unlocks knee in full extension II. Foot and Leg A. Function of foot: weight support; strong, adjustable lever; able to deal w/ uneven ground nd i. Axes: transverse (x)—thru ankle; anterioposterior (z)—thru 2 digit of foot; vertical (y)—thru leg
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