BIOL 1104 Lecture Notes - Ischium, Sacrospinous Ligament, Pubic Symphysis

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Published on 30 Jan 2013
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Outline of Lecture 01
Synovial Joints, Hip
0. Overview of joint types
A. Fibrous: low mobility fibrous connective tissue
B. Cartilaginous: some mobility hyaline cartilage,
fibrocartilage
C. Synovial: high mobility several components, below
I. Introduction to Synovial Joints
A. Components
1. Constant
- bone, hyaline cartilage, synovial membrane/cavity/fluid, fibrous
capsule
- Synovial cavity has no blood supply; nourished by synovial fluid,
slow to heal
2. Optional
- fibrocartilage (deepen cavity, promote sliding): labrum, disk,
meniscus
- fat pad
- intracapsular tendon (does not actually contact synovial fluid)
- bursa(e) (facilitate movement of tendons over joint, independent
or connected)
B. Joint motions
- Flexion/extension: flexor is anterior, extensor is posterior
- Abduction/adduction: abductor is lateral, adductor is medial
- Rotation: internal rotator is anterior, external rotator is posterior
II. Review of Pelvis (See also Lecture 11 on Pelvis and Perineum from thorax/abdomen)
A. Bones
- Innominate (os coxae): ilium, ischium, pubis and associated features
- Three bones ossify separately, fuse in early 20’s
- Sacrum and coccyx
B. Joints
- Sacroiliac (synovial) and ventral/dorsal sacroiliac, interosseous,
sacrotuberous, sacrospinous ligaments
- Pubic symphysis (cartilaginous) and superior/inferior pubic ligaments
III. Joint Mechanics
- Important in understanding transfer of body weight
- Static equilibrium requires that Σ M = Σ F D = 0
- As a result, tension in some muscles (e.g. gluteal abductors) can exceed body
weight
- Hip joint reaction force is greater in females due to wider pelvis
IV. Hip Joint
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