BIOL 1104 Lecture Notes - Immunoglobulin G, Nadph Oxidase, Superoxide

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30 Jan 2013
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Outline of Lecture 06
Phagocytic Cells, Innate Immunity, and Host Defense
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Innate Immunity: Definition, Activation, Receptors
I. Innate versus Adaptive Immunity
Rehash from previous lectures
II. Activation of Innate Immune Response: PAMPs and PRRs
- General invariant features of pathogen surfaces are recognized (Pathogen Assoc.
Molecular Patterns, PAMPs) by a limited set of fixed receptors (Pattern
Recognition Receptors, PRRs)
III. Toll Like Receptors
- TLRs are PRRs, originally discovered as dToll and 18-Wheeler in Drosophila
- In humans, 9 types of TLRs recognize PAMPs and activate innate immune
response
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Cells of Innate Immunity: Differentiation, Activation, Migration
IV. There are 3 Effector Cells of the Innate Immune System
1) Neutrophils: short lived phagocytes, kill
2) Macrophages: long lived phagocytes, kill, involved in inflammation,
remodeling
3) Natural Killer (NK): Kill viral infected cells that lack MHC I
- Metchnikoff first observed phagocytic cells in late 1800’s
V. Differentation of Neutrophils and Macrophages
A) Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell gives rise to: 1) neurons, 2) endothelium,
3) erythroids, 4) megakaryocytes, 5) myeloids, 6) lymphoids
B) Neutrophils
PHSC myeloblast promyelocyte myelocyte metamyelocyte
neutrophil
Two types of granules: primary/azurophil and secondary/specific
Signals (IL-1, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF) stimulate neutrophil production
Increased immature neutrophils in circulation is sign of
infection/inflammation
C) Macrophages
Promonocytes monocytes macrophages
Signals (IL-3, M-CSF, GM-CSF) stimulate monocyte production
Monocytes in circulation enter tissues and differentation into macrophages
VI. Macrophage Activation
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