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BIOL 1104 (30)

Pulmonary System

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BIOL 1104
Tamy Superle

Overview of Lung Function I. Purpose of Respiratory System a. Provide tissues w/ O2 while removing wastes (CO2) b. Entire cardiac output passes thru lungs => body attempts to match airflow into lungs w/ O2 delivery to tissues c. Terms i. Perfusion—oxygen delivery to tissues ii. Ventilation—airflow into lungs iii. Minute ventilation—amount of air in/out of lungs per minute; ~ 5L/min II. Structure/Function a. Conduction takes place in the airways (convective) i. Smaller cross sectional area, high flow b. Diffusion takes place in alveoli (smallest airways) i. Huge cross sectional area, very little flow c. Air/blood interface i. Active side—very thin (<0.5 um); efficient gas exchange 1. alveolar epithelium → interstitial space → capillary endothelium ii. Service side—thicker barrier between air & capillary; contains important “scaffolding” (connective) tissues of lung; tends to be the site of pathogenic accumulation of fluids III. Partial Pressures of Gases a. P tot each gases’ partial pressure b. Partial pressure (P )x= P Xtotactional concentration (F ) x i. Fractional concentrations of gases remain constant at different altitudes, but Ptotcreases => less inspired O2! c. Must take P H2O into account as well! i. At 37 C, P H2O = 47 mmHg (fully saturated) d. In alveoli, must also take P CO2into account in ambient air FCO2 is too small to be relevant IV. Lung Volumes & Capacities a. Terms i. Volume—amount of gas that cannot be broken down into smaller components ii. Capacity—made up of more than 1 volume (eg: TLC = RV + TV + IRV) b. Relevant Terms i. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)—balance between chest wall’s desire to open and lung’s desire to collapse; amount of air in lungs after expiring a normal breath ii. Tidal Volume (TV)—size of a single (normal) breath iii. Total Lung Capacity (TLC)—total amount of air that fits in lungs; TLC = RV + VC 1 iv. Vital Capacity (VC)—total amount of air that can be exhaled from max breath in (TLC –
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