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Lecture 5


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BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

Biology 1902 (After Midterm) Gavni Kharmandarian Staring @ Lecture 5b –> 12b nd Sub Zero Temperatures: 2 problem for winter-active animals: Mobility: (The ability to move freely and easily): because of high snow, snow builds up and gets to deep to walk through Physical Adaptations:  Long legs…. Eg: Moose have very long legs- 2 m high! at the height of your shoulder  Big feet…. Eg. Snow Shoe Hares have bigger hind feet, but their tracks look like their front feet are bigger because when they jump they bring their hind(back) feet to the front  Large surface area of feet: more contact with the snow surface  Deer’s, Moose, and Caribous have a wide surface area on their feet.  Caribou’s have short legs and huge feet.  Many northern animals such as Fisher also have large hind feet  Martens have large hind feet  Birds also have snowshoes, Eg. Northern grouse have feet that have feathers on their feet  Ruffed Grouse grow “snowshoes” every autumn Behavioural Adaptations: -Subnivean Space  White-tailed Deer move to a sheltered area with less snow… They form YARDS; Deer yards ; a brows line identifies a Deeryard  Wolves: Travel in a pack and a straight line ; one wold breaks track and the other follow  Otters have short legs ,but they slid on their bellies , they “tobbaggan” down hills  MInks also use their bodies to tobbaggan Migration:  Many other animals escape sub-zero temperatures for migrating  Animals that migrate:  Monarch butterflies  Some dragonflies migrate: Green Darner  Birds & Migration:  Most our birds migrate and travel very long distances  What is a champion Migrator? Artic Tern: ex-World Champion Migratory Bird: 20,000 km roundtrip each year!  Birds store fat (not carbohydrates): fat powers flight, the more weight you have, the more energy you need to fly  Semipalmated Sandpipers double their body weight in just 10 days of feeding  Most small birds, like Songbirds, travel at night.  Advantages of traveling at night? 1) No overheating; cooler at night. Colder air will air cool their engines. 2) Less wind; journey is calmer at night, and it takes less energy from fighting winds.3) Safer  Hawks: Some birds migrate in daytime and still conserve energy ; “Thermal Hop” (eagles and hawks do this ) (Soaring: rising up --- Gliding: coming down)  Bounding Flight: going up and down : Thermal Hopping  Hummingbirds & Blackbirds also migrate in the daytime  Only 50% of the birds return the next year ; Starvation, being killed,  Mortality rate for young birds are way higher than adult birds  How do they find the way? Visual Cues (oceans, sun, mountains, landforms, and other visual cues) , Nocturnal migrants use visual cues too (constellations, moon, the sky)  Both day and night migrants use Earth Magnetic Field (unknown mechanism)  Rhodopsin is a photopigment in the retina is likely involved with electromagnetic interaction  Sandpipers fly both day & night  Red Knot- put a geotracker and found out they flew 5,100 km in 8 days straight!  Banding reveals migration secrets : captures birds in Mist nets (don’t hurt the bird) , analyze it , let it go , wait for it to die and when someone finds and calls the number to return it they analyze it again hence: banding (bands on the leg)  Geese fly in “V”’s… Why? To conserve energy, Geese fly day and night, birds flying behind one another use less energy to lift their wing  Migration is very complex: can be learned , programmed , in by set Subzero problems for Plants:  Water becomes ice, ice inside the cells kills plants Physical Adaptations:  Going dormant in the ground  Plants become: “Cold Hardy” : 1) Excess water is withdrawn from leaves and twigs evaporate, 2) water is drawn out of the cells, which increases solute concentration… less water , which less freezing occurs, 3) Protective sugars added to cells increasing solute concentration, 4) Unsaturated fatty acids added to cell membranes to increase flexibility … (plants have a cell wall which animals don’t have, inside there is a membrane that has a special chemical that can bend to stay away from ice) membrane has to stay intact! , 5) Antifreeze proteins to suppress ice formation and proteins to resist dehydration are made  Plants become Cold Hardy through acclimation  Acclimation : is a 2 step process  The first stage of acclimation is triggered by a change in the photoperiod   1)Phytochromes = light-sensitive photo pigments (cause cells to go dormant, make plant sensitive to low temperatures)  2)Second stage is triggered by cold temperatures by cold temperatures ( 0 to 10 degrees)  Some trees are cold hardy to -80 degrees  Keeping needles (little leaves) creates new problem!  Skunk Cabbage turns up the heat during the winter and melt snow around it (generates heat) which keeps the plant safe, and in the summer it cools down.  Desiccation is the next problem : dries out , calm , sunny days are the worst  A calmer sunny day makes the tree all dried up , it absorbs all the solar energy  Conifers retain their leaves so size and shape is very important ,  Leaf surface area is small –Close stomata – thick cuticles (thick laye that captures water)  Hairy underside of leaves : help trap moisture and keep it inside Behavioural Adaptations:  Ferns curl up for the winter: helps them retain the surface area (reduce the surface area by curling up)  Deciduous trees have large leaves with a large surface area , they just drop their leaves  A tree that turns red in the fall: Red Maple;  not always red, can be yellow sometimes , separate sexes  Females turn yellow in the fall, Males turn red.  Red helps heat wave lengths (an adaptive colouration)  Red is not present- leaves produce anthocyanin  Aposematic coloration? Theory that the red is warning the insects not to eat the leaves  Leaf loss helps solve a second problem associated with sub-zero temps: the weight of snow- not much room for snow to settle on the leaves  Conifers retain their leaves so size and shape is very important  The boreal forest is dominated by spindly and spire-shaded trees  Balsam Fir have a SPIRE shape (like a spyro)  Black Spruce are spindly (short branches )  Spire and Spindly are types of shapes that sheds snow (adaptation)  Not only extreme cold is a problem for living things TOO MUCH HEAT CAN ALSO BE A PROBLEM:  Excessive Heat can cause Desiccation  In extreme heat, plants reduce leaf surface area by curling their leaves  Abscisic Acid (ABA) Helps plants induce dormancy, often used in time of droubt. Animals on Hot days:  They seek shady sites  Some animals go where its cooler (where there is water)  Dragonflies reduce their surface area facing the sun by… assuming a position called OBELISK (backwards) they use their back end as an umbrella  Tiger Beetles move their bodies away from the heat by “Stilting” (They raise their bodies off the sand with their legs)  Heat can be shunted to body parts with a greater surface area, such as the abdomen  The Rete Mirabile can be bypassed and more blood can be shunted to extremities  Less blood : less heat , More blood : more heat  Honeybees are social insects that work together to air cool their hive; In the hive, Honeybees use their wings to fan the colony  Panting is a form of Evaporating Cooling , pump air  Birds do not sweat but pant, allowing more air to pass over respiratory surfaces (Breathe with short, quick breaths)  Guler fluttering : chest vibrating, birds do it to get more air moving, and cools down blood  Bees also use evaporative cooling  Vultures(bird) have a very unusal way of cooling off through evaporative cooling: they excrete(pee) on their own legs and the liquid allows their blood to cool off  Mourning Doves employ the dangerous strategy of hyperthermia (over 45 degrees)  Hyperthermia: The condition of having a body temperature greatly above normal.  HypOthermic : body temp gets low in the winter to adapt to coldness  HyPERthermic: Body temp rises in summer (very few animals do this) CHALLENGE #3 THAT PLANTS AND ANIMALS FACE Nutrition Major difference between plants and animals when it comes to Nutrition: Plants make food, need raw ingredients  Animals cannot make their own food but  1) they eat plants = Herbivore  2) they eat other animals  Every single part of a plant gets eaten  Maple Spindle Gall Mites have mites inside the plant  Some animals even eat dead plants! These animals are called : DETRITIVORE , they eat : Detritus (dead animals)  Detritivores: Earth Worms, Millipedes eat pine pollen  Some animals have food delivered : like water – filter feeding  Black Flies: larvae filter feed with elegant Labral brushes  Larger animals filter feed too: Puddle ducks or Puddlers (go under water and scoop mud of bottom and bring it back up)  Lamellae  The tongue of Northern Shoveler (a puddle duck) have Lamellae on the sides, very long and unique for filter feeding  All plant foods feeding Adaptations, Nectar requires a long proboscis  Hummingbirds have a long beak & long extensible tongue  Hyoid process , inside the humming bird, and extension latter that allows the tongue to jump out to get nectar  Filter Feeding animals: Fresh Water Sponge (smells like the ocean)  All plant parts and products are eaten by animals – nectar(sugar water)  Bugs (group of insects that have probing [sucking] mouth parts) called Stylets e.g tree hoppers, aphids  Sap:[liquid part of a plant that insects go after] in phloem tissues of plants [Bugs eat this]  Plant tissues are another major source of food [full of carbohydrates] o Major problem with eating plant tissue:  Ingesting: tough structural components, deaking with the plant outside the body  Digesting it: dealing with the plant inside the body  {tough Structural components}  Slugs and Snails break off plant tissue with a RADULA  Radula : Like a chain saw [ inside their mouth , its for tearing apart plant tissue]  Caterpillars have modified MANDIBLES  Mandibles: [equivlant to radula, except they are from the outer side]  Some caterpillars eat a leaf from the inside (Leaf Blotch miner – caterpillar that mines the material of a leaf)  Insect will choose only a couple types of plants they feed on  Mammals use modified teeth  Beavers have INCISORS—that never stop growing and self-sharpen o Their teeth has an orange color, due from iron o The back part is dentine – which is softer (wears back , which gives the sharp edge)  CHEEK TEETH GRIND the food and are powered by large MASSETERS o Rabbits have double incisors o The runs on 2 muscles: 1) temporalis 2) Masseter large (back teeth –get food to smaller pieces to swallow)  Moose have only a lower set on incisors  Large CHEEK TEETH grind up the food(like a cheese grader they rip apart the food)  ANALGOUS STRUCTURE ( means they are the same thing but for the same function… eg, wheels on a car and bike) : Mandibles, radula, and cheek teeth all perform the same function (tearing up the tissues) but arise from different origins  Ruffed Grouse eat a lot of buds  Spruce Grouse eat conifer needles  But birds have no teeth?! ANALGOUS to the radula, mandibles and cheek teeth is the Gizzard (pard of the stomach, help them break down the food)  After INGESTION Problem #2: DIGESTION – Slugs and Snails produce digestive enzymes  Caterpillars eat a lot and waste a lot (poop a lot)  There are many bugs that eat caterpillar poop! (eg.beetles)  Moose don’t have the enzymes either, they get help from BACTERIA living in their RUMEN o They have a chamber in their stomach of bacteria that help them digest it o Once they get it broke down, they bring it back up to the mouth and chew it again  Hares, rabbits and beavers have intestinal pouches called CAECA (singular=Caecum) o CEACA :in the stomach that helps them break down the food with bacteria o They can’t bring it back up to the food , but they still process it twice, so they poop and eat it again to get the nutrients of the plants  CEACA makes you eat your own poop, RUMEN, comes back up to your mouth ( bigger animals –moose , cows, etc.) o Beavers, just like moose process their food twice o COPROPHAGY : means eating your droppings (own poop )  Grouse caeca  Porcupines do not eat their own droppings, so how do they get their nutrients? The digestive tract is about 26% of their total weight. So they have a large digestive system  Fruit is another major source for birds o They eat the pulp or flesh and pass out the seeds. o When they poop the seeds they are dispersing them (doing the plant a favor) called SEED DISPURSING o Most fruit-eating birds are not obligate fruit eaters o Waxwings are close they come , they eat berries ,  They have large gapes and short intestines (helps them digest fast)  They can eat a berry and poop it in 20 mins (fast digestion)  GAPING just means opening your mouth and the bigger it is , the more food you can eat o Eating fruit and eating seeds is very different in animal world- Seeds are a hard substance, fruits are softer o Finches eat seeds they spit away the fruit part and eat the seeds - o Bill size and shape reflects diet o SEED PREDATORS: GROSEBEAKS (type of bird) have massive conical bills for crushing and slicing o A lot of seeds have a very hard coating on the outside- birds have to slice that off , they have a built in can opener in their mouth (with their bill) o American Goldfinches have small fine bills for accessing thistle seeds o Red Crossbills have odd bills for o GRIT aids in the breakdown of seed sin the gizzard o When there is one kind of resource and all animals feed upon different divisions of it NICHPARTIONING (like office cubes) o Blue Jays have another way of opening nuts- They don’t have bills, they pick it with their beak ( like a hammer) they pound the seed open, and hold it with their feet.  Plants also have chemical defences to overcome  Some herbivores sequester the toxins  Some insects employ a VEIN DRAIN*** strategy : some insects go to plants because they contain toxins in their veins, the insects will bite the vein to eat the plant safely , depending on the insect—they all do it differently  Vein Drain (refer to text book for more info): insect is cutting off the main supply of chemicals, making the outer parts of the tissue safe to eat  Some animals use enzymes to counter toxins, depending on the type on animal and plant  Some plants are avoided completely by animals  MFOs (mixed function oxidases): Group of enzymes in certain animals produce that help neutralize a plant toxin inside their bodies once they’re ingested o Larger animals can fight back harder with these enzymes  Some HERBIVORS are SPECIALISTS, eating only one or two kinds of foods to avoid these toxins o Eg. Monarchs only eat milkweeds o Eg. Red-headed Pine Sawflies eat pine needles o Others are GENERALIST  Beavers eat a large variety of plants , nothing but plants  Some animals switch foods for balanced diet o Some animals are tied to one plant , they prefer it better – sticking to one type of food o Some animals switch their foods during seeds  Fresh leaves and twigs= high carbohydrates, protein, low sodium o Moose eat a lot of twigs all summer long  eat Balsm Fir= very low Sodium  Moose basically have little sodium and moisture  In the summer they eat a lot of water plants – Aquatic Plants = High sodium  Main point is they end up getting their sodium from water plants  Water-shield= 500 x more Na(concentration) than land plants  Sodium is stored in rumen  Moose go to road side edges to drink water, they go there get salt water  Road salt is sodium chloride  Beaver ponds are full of water plants  Rumen: the bacteria that lives in the rumen do the herbivore a favor, they break down the food that the animal cant digest o Rumen helps break down food o Bacteria gets free room and a place to stay in the stomach  Plants have many defences against animals , although animals find ways to fight those defences Animals Eating Other Animals: PREDATION PREDATOR: an animal that eats other animals  Advantages of eating animals: o Packed with proteins o Animal meat tissue is easier to digest internally rather than plant tissue o And more return in effort  Disadvantaged of eating animals: o Hard to find o Hard to catch o Animals fight back o Dangerous  PARASITOIDS: Animals that eat another animal from the inside while the animal is alive  PARASITISM: Animals that eat another animals without killing the other animal  SCAVENGING: Animals that eat already dead animals  Before a meal is enjoyed, a predator must first : o Locate the animal o Capture the animal o Immobilize the animal (kill it)  Although there is never just one way of solving any of these challenges  KEEN EYESIGHT: eye sight is very important , and there are many different types of eyes o Hawks have keen eyesight because they have a large number of CONES in their retina o Cones are for color and sharp vision o LARGE EYES: more sensory and gather more light o Hunting at night requires special adaptations o Great Grey Owls : Have large eyes o Owls have great night vision  They have a large number of RODS: which are more sensitive to light  also have GLYCOGEN RICH RODS= sensitive vision  FRONTAL PLACEMENT= more depth perception (eyes are in the front of face)  This creates a huge blind spot, so they turn their heads to scan – they can turn their heads 270 degrees around  Eye shape is important to; Larger eyes get a larger picture  Birds only have 2 or 3 times more magnification  Other hunters have large eyes too! Eg. Frogs  Tiger Beetles hunt visually and have large COMPOUND EYES  Ground Beetles are Nocturnal counterparts , they hunt at night  Dragon flies are visual hunters-- a dragonfly eye can have 28,00 OMMATIDIA each with 6 or 7 sensory cells  Compound eyes do not give an animal a compound picture  Whirligigs (beetle predators) : can see above and below the water at the same time—their eyes go half below and half above the water which gives them aquatic and land view (very complex eyes)  Spiders have 8 eyes but they are SIMPLE (the structure is simple like our eyes) (by simple it means not compound) o Jumping Spiders have exceptional eyesight  They have 8 eyes  Anterior Median eye(AME) – Anterior (front ) median (middle), middle front of the face eyes  All these eyes form together a picture , they have no blind spot  Jumping spiders move their retinas to change their field of view  They have muscles on their retina  Jumping spiders can tell many things by their eyes , just by visually scanning  Very special animals  JUMPING SPIDERS ARE VISUAL HUNTERS o Crab Spiders are also VISUAL HUNTERS  Crap spiders can also change colors  Hearing is also very important for hunting other animals  LARGE PINNAE (ears) magnify sound  Eastern Wolf –big eared hunter  Owls also hear very well but have no external pinnae o FACIAL DISKS : capture sound  Some owls only hunt with hearing  They hear with their faces  They have a dish face – their faces are shaped like cups – their special feathers help direct the sound to the ears we cant see  Each side of the face is one big disc  Other adaptations are hidden  ASYMMETRICAL EAR OPENINGS and WIDE HEADS allow pinpointing of sound – if a sound arrives in one directions towards one ear , it will arrive very finely – they have a horizontal and vertical of time arriving of sound  But they have incredible hearing  Bats also locate prey by hearing o ECHOLOCATION: make a sound , hit something then bounce back to the bats ear – like a echo o They also use sound to find prey – high frequency sound that us humans can’t even hear  Local animals that use echolocation : Shrews use ULTRASOUND (very sensitive)  Sense of SMELL : Olfactory o Elongated snout (long face/nose for smelling) o Vomeronasal Organ/Jacobson’s Organ refer to text book for definition  Some times are better for hunting rather than others o Animals usually hunt around sunset  Cooler  Less wind  When an animal walks around, it leaves around smell molecules , the animals go around and smell above the ground for their prey  Scent trails are easier to track at dusk o Snakes (better scent then sight) use the Jacobson’s Organ for finer discrimination of odours  TACTILE SENSES(touch senses): Racoons have touch-sensitive paws , they have tactile paws o Tactile sensors can be located around the mouth as well o VIBRISSAE: sensory hairs – whiskers  River Otters have Vibrissae  Wild cats have them  Fox’s  Many mammals o Birds have a similar features called : BRISSLE FEATHERS  Eastern Whip-poor-will have sensory feathers o RICTAL BRISTLES : meaning mouth sensory feathers  Star-nosed Moles have Eimer’s Organs (in the text book) in their nose protuberances  There are tactile sensors in hands, base of whiskers, and nose  Sand pipers (such as American Woodcock and Wilson’s Snipes) have pressure-sensitive cells called HERBST CORPUSCLES in the tip of their bills  There are many types but HERBST is the most common one in birds  Ducks have herbs corpuscles at the end of their beak  Woodpeckers have HERBST CORPUSCLES in the tips of their tongues  HEAT PIT o Rattlesnakes have INFRARED heat sensors o The HEAT PIT lies between the eyes and nostrils and can detect changes as small as 0.001 degrees C  Lots of these tools are to find prey, although how are these tools used??  ACTIVE SEARCHING : they don’t wait around, they go out and hunt o Some spiders Actively Search ( Wolf Spiders) o Tiger beetles also search and capture  Ambush hunting : animals who sit and wait for their prey to arrive to them o Praying Mantids let their prey come to them o Most owls also sit and wait o Crab spiders also ambush hunt o The Goldenrod Crab Spider changes colour to match the flower it is waiting on  TRAPS: o Spiders build capture webs o 3TYPES : o FLIGHT INTERCEPT traps: spider webs are called this because they interrupt the flight of the insect with their traps o Traps have to be flexible , elasticity o Orb Weaver spiders build spectacular webs: circular – in trees and higher places o FUNNEL WEAVERS usually build webs on the ground – and hide behind them o Sheet-web Spiders make bowl shaped webs with knockdown strands—strands aren’t sticky, the capture “sheet” is sticky, which is at the bottom of the bowl. The spider hides at the bottom and pulls the trapped insect out o Webs are best seen at dawn because o Spider webs attract dew because their webs have to remain flexible and dew has moisture o HYGROSCOPIC : means attracting moisture – webs are hygroscopic o Webs are very strong and flexible – they are made out of silk  SPIDER WEB FACTS:  Webs contain 6 or more types of silk  Spiders recycle silk from broken webs : they eat their own web  To build a complex orb web it takes 20 mins on average – very fast o ARGIOPE: Spiders who lay in the middle of their web o Why do spiders sometimes sit in the middle of their web?  STABILIMENTUM: stabilizing the web = Webs attract insects, the zig zag pattern and the spider in the middle -- looks like food—so insects come in o Mole tunnels can serve as Traps o Pitt Fall Trap: animals physically fall into it. o Ant-lion Larve o AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY :  Using your body in some way to attract prey  They mimic an animal and are aggressive to the incoming prey  some Fireflies deceive and eat other species of Fireflies  Once prey is located, it must be captured o Owls use their feet equipped with TALONS – so do hawks o OSPREY(type of hawk) have special feet for catching fish—their toes are reverisible toes to catch a better grip to catch fish o Fishing Owl also have reversible toes to catch fish o Crab Spiders use their legs to catch prey as well (they have special hair pads on their legs) o Praying Mantids use their legs to catch prey (their legs fold up—special legs called Raptorial legs; (meaning modified legs to capture prey) o Foxes use their mouth o Tiger beetles capture with their MANDIBLES o Merganser( type of duck ) bills are modified for catching fish—they don’t filter feed (ducks) o Frogs use TONGUSE to capture prey—Toad TONGUE FLICK: special tongues fold o Although they must have special sticky saliva to catch the prey o Woodpeckers also have sticky saliva to catch prey  HYOID Crab Spiders HORNS or HYOID PROCESS extend the tongue and catch prey  One captured a prey must be killed o Teeth can be used o Foxes & Coyotees use a “SHAKE AND BREAK” technique: shake the animal and break the animals neck o Wolves kill larger prey by “SLASH AND SHOCK”: travel and kill in packs, they bite the animal to make the animal weak and then kill it o Carnivores use large CANINES and strong TEMPORALIS o Weasels bite into cranium ( back of the skull) o Cats bite into the neck vertebrae (break the neck) o Dogs grab the skin and kill the prey o Bird Hawks use their TALONS to kill their prey, suffocate the prey with their claws until they squeeze the heart to death—they have long legs to keep the animal away from their body while killing it. o Most Snakes swallow their prey while it is alive o Black Rat Snakes and Milk Snakes are CONSTRICTORS : wrap around the preys body and suffocate until it dies o POISON: venom—Mississauga Rattlesnake (digestive enzyme) o and Assassin Bugs use POISON to kill their prey as well  Both poisons contain enzymes to make the prey digest internally o Robber Fly inject their prey with toxins and enzymes that digest as well o Mammals that use poison to kill their prey:  Short-tailed Shrew They have a poison bite , very rare mammal , they have a very efftive toxin o Once a prey is captured and killed, there are indigestible parts to deal with  Selective Feeding: When only certain parts of a prey are eaten by the predator  Weasels are one of the very few animals that tackle porcupines – the fisher(weasel) runs in circles around the porcupines and avoids the tail , it slashes the porcupines face , and then turns over on his back, skins the porcupine and eats all the inside organs, leaving the skin behind, this is called SKINNING – Fishers(type of weasel) skin porcupines. o Some animals pass indigestible bits through their body  Wolf droppings sometimes hair and bone fragments in their dropping, it helps to protect the inside of the digestive system o Owls swallow their prey whole (some owls, not all)  About 12 hours later they cough out the remains, this is called a PELLET: they’re wet at first but once they dry you can find all the bones and fur inside  You can find many different animal bones in one pellet o Predators face many hazards o Prey fights back  Deer kick their predator  Injury gets caused by the chase(e.g. hawk got stabbed by a branch chasing a bird and died)  BIOACCUMILATION OF TOXINS: (major problem animals face) when the chemicals build up and the animal dies  Botulism : it’s a bacteria that gets into the fish in the water, and when the birds eat in the fish, the bird gets poisoned and dies  This bacteria kill by thousands  This bacteria bioaccumiliated and the bids paid the consequences o HUMAN PERSECUTION: humans that kill animals they don’t like, or just for fun  People in history used to kill animals because they thought they thought harsh animals were evil. o The #1 problem facing predators such as Eastern Wolf is STARVATION o Success rate for animals to catch prey is 1 in 10—if you keep missing, you get weaker and starve more o Predators play important roles  If animals aren’t pressures to run and be healthy, they become weak and forget their abilities o Other animals eat their prey from the inside while it is still alive  The HOST can be either killed or left alive in the process  PARASITOIDS kill their HOSTS  PARASITES don’t kill the HOST  BRACONID WASPS are parasitoids only in the larval stage  Braconid Wasp cocoons – one type of parasitoids  Tachinid flies are PARASITOIDS as larvae (usually have lots of spikes on their body  They lay eggs on the host  Some parasitoids paralyze prey and burrow them in the ground with eggs e.g. Thread-wasited Wasp—they dig a holes in the ground and paralyze host with the eggs  They digs holes to lay their eggs then they bring prey in the hole for food  Spider Wasps & Digger wasps do this as well – dig holes to lay their eggs  ****CERCICERIS (digger wasp) They paralyze the prey and bring it to the hole, but the prey is alive the whole time  Some Parasitoids do VISUAL SEARCHING o A Flesh Fly investigates a potential host o Poly DNA viruses live inside wasps, and when attacked , predator gets injected o When the right HOST is found, eggs are laid—Eggs are laid through an OVIPOSITOR : just means tool for laying eggs o ICHNEUMON OVIPOSTORS are impressive – these two groups go after insects in above grounds  They can serve DRILLS—they spread their legs on the wood, then they drill puffs up like a balloon and it help their drill burn its way in into the wood  When the egg hatches, the paralysed Horntail larvae is eaten alive  The long tool is NOT stinger  Pelecinid wasps lay eggs on June Beetle grubs in the ground  Refer to text book for more info o There is a fly that goes after turtle eggs, when the turtle is laying its egg, the fly goes in and eats the developing turtle o PARASITES eat without killing their hosts o LEACHES are EHTOPARASITES: suck the blood out of the animal o Are Black Flies ectoparasites? No, because in larvae’s are filter feeders, they consume blood only for their eggs (for protein)  What about Mosquitoes? No!  TICKS ARE ectoparasites—all they eat is blood  MOOSE TICKS – they feel off the moose’s blood in the winter – there are thousands and thousands of ticks on each moose, this might irritate the moose, for they run it on surface and they lose hair, if they lose hair , they may freeze in the winter  When the host ( moose ) dies, the ticks migrate away because no more blood left  Many migratory birds harbour ectoparasitic flies; FLAT FLIES are one group  Flat flies are usually found on birds or bats – they feed off the blood (they’re called flat flies because they’re flat for crawling through mammals)  Are clams ectoparasites? Not the adults, but the babies are (larval form) – they feed off fish scales  GLOCHIDIUM : baby clam  Glochidia are Ectoparasites on fish gills and fins  Tick mouthparts for penetrating and holding o Host fight back!  They GROOM & PREEN  Herons (type of bird) have special Grooming Claw to brush away ectoparasites  Beavers have one too, they have a special groom on their foot to take out parasites o ENDOPARASITES: parasites that live inside the host  *****CUTERBRA (a Robust Bot Fly) is only parasitic in larval stage o A lot of chipmunks have large parasites living inside them o Deer have a parasitic BRAINWORM (full cycle parasite – all stages)  The larvae leave in the droppings, they also live in slugs or snails (2 hosts)  Deer are the parasites DEFINITIVE HOST (lays the eggs and produces inside the deer)  Slug/Snail is the intermediate host  First the deer it’s the parasite then it travels to the brain of the deer then it produces in the brain  the babies travel in the stomach and out the rear end with droppings then the snail eats the droppings  and babies live in snail  Does NOT harm the deer at all o If a moose eats an infected intermediate host  when a brain worm travels to the brain of a moose, the Brainworm eats up the spinal cord and into the brain this can cause major damage or even death to the moose o Why does it affect moose but not deer? The parasite evolved with deer but not with moose.  Deer evolved in North America but moose didn’t. o Same process happens with; Robins harbour a parasitic FLUKE (flat worms)  The robin is the definitive host and Aquatic Snail= Intermediate Host  Snail eats bird droppings in the water  The parasite migrates up the snails body into the tentacles and lives in there  Bird comes along and grabs eats the tentacles, and then the parasite travels back into the bird and lives in there for a while o ENDOPARASITES have problems too; when the animal dies, creates a big problem o SCAVE
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