Wk 10.doc

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29 Mar 2012
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TERMS AND EXAMPLES WEEK 10
HOW ANIMALS DEAL WITH LACK OF FOOD OR FOOD STRESS
A) UNPREDICTABLE, IRREGULAR FLUCTUATIONS OF FOOD: NO REAL PATTERN
SMALL MAMMAL POPULATIONS FLUCTUATE GREATLY; SOME YEARS, THERE ARE HUGE NUMBERS,
OTHERS ALMOST NONE
SEEDS AND FRUITS ALSO FLUCTUATE:
SOLUTIONS:
A) SWITCH FOOD, SCAVENGE - ESPECIALLY IN WINTER. I.E., CARNIVORES: BIRDS: EAGLES,
JAYS , RAVENS
B) STORE FOOD WHEN THERE IS EXTRA: FOXES, WEASELS – HIDE OR BURY EXTRA; OWLS,
SHRIKES IMPALE PREY ON A SHARP OBJECT
FOOD STORES = LARDER
FOR REGULAR AND PREDICTABLE FOOD SHORTAGES (DUE TO WINTER):
SOLUTIONS:
1) MIGRATION
2) DORMANCY
3) LONG-TERM STORAGE: ANIMALS HAVE TWO MAIN STORAGE TYPES:
1. SCATTER HOARDING = MANY SCATTERED SMALL STORES; GRAY SQUIRRELS – ONE ITEM IN EACH
SITE; RED SQUIRREL - PILES OF CONES = MIDDENS
GRAY JAY – WRAPS FOOD IN A SALIVAL BLANKET; HIPPOCAMPUS GROWS LARGER, INCREDIBLE
SPATIAL MEMORY -
2. CENTRAL STORAGE: CHIPMUNKS HAVE UNDERGROUND STORE ROOMS; BEAVERS MAKE A FOOD
PILE NEAR THE LODGE
PLANTS ALSO HAVE NUTRITIONAL DEMANDS
UNLIKE ANIMALS, MOST PLANTS MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD = AUTOTROPHS
TO MANUFACTURE CARBOHYDRATES AND OTHER COMPOUNDS MOST USE RAW INGREDIENTS =
NUTRIENTS SUCH AS PHOSPHORUS, NITROGEN, POTASSIUM
SOMETIMES ESSENTIAL INGREDIENTS (SUN AND NUTRIENTS) HARD TO COME BY. SHORTAGES CAN BE
HABITAT OR SEASONALLY RELATED
PLANTS SOLVE MAJOR PROBLEMS:
1) LOW NUTRIENTS - HABITATS LIKE PEATLANDS ARE NUTRIENT-POOR,
PLANTS HERE ENLIST HELP IN GETTING NUTRIENTS:
SOLUTIONS:
A) FUNGUS/ ROOT ASSOCIATIONS = MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS; INSIDE ROOT HAIRS =
ENDOMYCORRHIZAL; AROUND ROOT HAIRS = ECTOMYCORRHIZAL. MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS
ACT LIKE A PIPELINE, EXTENDING ROOT UPTAKE AREA TO A LARGER REGION; ALSO BLOCK UPTAKE OF
ALUMINIUM; FOUND IN HEATH PLANTS (LABRADOR TEA, LEATHERLEAF, LAURELS, CRANBERRY)
B) HELP FROM BACTERIA: NITROGEN IS AN ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT; IN MANY FORMS PLANTS CANNOT
BE USED, MUST BE TRANSFORMED INTO ORGANIC FORM. BACTERIA HAVE THIS TRANSFORMING OR
FIXING CAPABILITY; EXAMPLE: SPECKLED ALDER ROOT NODULES
C) USE A SUPPLEMENTARY SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS
CARNIVOROUS PLANTS – OFTEN IN NUTRIENT-STRESSED HABITATS LIKE PEATLANDS: THERE ARE
THREE GROUPS:
A) SUNDEWS - STICKY CATCH HAIRS ON LEAF TRAPS; ,SHORT DIGESTIVE HAIRS IN MIDDLE
ENZYMES, FOLDS OVER
B) PITCHER PLANTS – MODIFIED LEAF TRAP: VASE-LIKE OR PITCHER-LIKE LEAF TRAP
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