BIOL 1902 Lecture Notes - Heterosis

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29 Mar 2012
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SOME NOTES FOR WEEK 12
OLFACTORY (CHEMICAL) ADVERTIZEMENTS
PHEROMONES = SEXUAL PERFUMES (PLEASE NOTE THAT THERE ARE OTHER
TYPES:,WASPS HAVE DEFENSIVE = ATTACK PHEROMONES; MAMMALS ALSO
HAVE TERRITORIAL PHEROMONES)
MAMMALS HAVE SEXUAL PHEROMONE GLANDS NEAR GENITALS, OFTEN
RELEASE PHEROMONES IN URINE
PHEROMONES INFORM POTENTIAL MATE THAT SENDER IS READY FOR
BREEDING; CAN ALSO SERVE TO STIMULATE FEMALE TO OVULATION: HARES,
PORCUPINES, SNAKES, MOOSE, DEER USE PHEROMONES IN COURTSHIP
INSECTS: USES IS WELL DEVELOPED IN MOTHS ESPECIALLY SILK MOTHS;
MALES HUGE ANTENNAE - MORE THAN FOUR MILLION PORES JUST TO CAPTURE
FEMALE'S PHEROMONES; MALES CAN DETECT FROM SEVERAL KILOMETERS
AWAY AND TRACK FEMALES DOWN!
PHEROMONES OFFER ADVANTAGES:
1) THEY ARE SPECIES SPECIFIC - CODED MESSAGES
2) THEY ARE LONG RANGE
3) THEY ARE PERSISTING
SOME ANIMALS OFFER NUPTIAL OR COURTSHIP GIFTS
COURTSHIP GIFT GIVING: MOST COMMON IN SMALL PREDATORY ANIMALS:
EXAMPLES: SOME SPIDERS, DANCE FLIES, SCORPIONFLIES
REAL RISK FACED BY AMOROUS MALES - MAY BE MISTAKEN FOR FOOD.
MALES GIVE FEMALE A GIFT OF FOOD. KEEPS HER OCCUPIED; GIFTS CAN
ENTICE A FEMALE TO ACCEPT A MATE AND TO KEEP THE SUITOR ALIVE.
OTHER WAYS OF AVOIDING BEING A MEAL DURING COURTSHIP: MALE ORB-
WEAVER SPIDERS ARE OFTEN MINISCULE (TINY) COMPARED TO THE FEMALE;
THEY MAY ALSO PLUCK THE FEMALE’S WEB WITH A SPECIAL NUPTIAL RHYTHM
TO ENSURE THEY ARE NOT MISTAKEN FOR FOOD.
ATTEMPTS TO GUARANTEE PATERNITY OF OFFSPRING:
1) REMOVE COMPETITOR’S SPERM AND REPLACE IT WITH YOUR OWN
EXAMPLE: EBONY JEWELWING DAMSELFLY PENIS HAS SCOOPS TO PULL OUT
OTHER MALE’S SPERM
2) STAY WITH FEMALE UNTIL NO LONGER MATES OR EGGS ARE LAID =
CONTACT GUARDING
EXAMPLES: BULL MOOSE,
SOME DRAGONFLIES DO: KEEP CLASPERS ATTACHED TO FEMALE’S
HEAD WHILE SHE LAYS HER EGGS
OR SOME DRAGONFLY MALES FLY IN CIRCLES AROUND THE FEMALE WHILE
SHE LAYS HER EGGS
3) HAVE VERY LONG COPULATIONS – (WOLVES STUCK TOGETHER FOR MORE
THAN ONE HOUR; MARCH FLIES - 56 HOURS)
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SOME ANIMALS USE SPECIAL TOOLS TO MAKE SURE FEMALE DOESN’T
STRAY:
MALE WALKING STICK USES CLASPERS (LIKE HANDCUFFS) TO KEEP FEMALE
ATTACHED UNTIL SHE IS FINISHED MATING - NO OTHER MALE CAN INTERRUPT.
COPULATIONS LAST DAYS - ONE SPECIES TEN DAY COPULATION!
4) COPULATORY PLUG = CHASTITY BELT MADE BY SEALING FEMALE'S
SEXUAL OPENING WITH.
A) HEADLESS SPERM - MANY BEETLES - LOTS PRODUCED, FORM PHYSICAL
PLUG
B) GIANT SPERM - FEATHERWING BEETLE – SPERM IS 2X ITS BODY LENGTH.
THE TAIL ACTS AS PLUG
C) CEMENT PLUG:
1) MOLES MAKE EPOXY WITH TWO COMPOUNDS IN SPECIAL GLAND
2) MOSQUITO EJACULATE HARDENS TO CEMENT, ALSO CONTAINS ANTI-
APHRODISIAC
ANTI-APHRODISIACS ALSO USED BY OTHER ANIMALS – TURN OFF THE
COMPETITION: EXAMPLE: GARTER SNAKES USE KIDNEY SECRETIONS
D) BODY PLUG: LEAVE BEHIND THE BODY AS A PLUG: SOME BITING MIDGES.
DURING MATING THE FEMALE PIERCES MALE'S HEAD WITH HER MOUTHPARTS
AND SUCKS HIM DRY LEAVING EMPTY SHELL.
HONEYBEE MALES: DURING SEX THEIR BODY EXPLODES APART LIKE
GRENADE; GENITALIA HAS HOOKS AND SPINES AND IT WEDGES INTO FEMALE.
SEALS HER OPENING.
COPULATORY PLUGS STILL DO NOT ALWAYS GUARANTEE PATERNITY-
- QUEEN BEES FOUND WITH TWO OR THREE MALE GENITALIA STUCK TO HER
(SOME MALE BEES HAVE HAIRY TIP TO PENIS TO PULL OUT PLUG)
OTHER ANIMALS CAN ALSO EXTRACT COPULATORY PLUGS:
RATSPREHENSILE PENIS THAT TWISTS AROUND LIKE TOILET PLUNGER AND
SUCKS OUT PLUGS.
SOME GROUND SQUIRRELS PRY OUT PLUG WITH PENIS BONE USING IT LIKE A
CROWBAR
FEMALE FOX SQUIRRELS CAN REACH AND PULL IT OUT, EVEN EAT THE PLUG
REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
SPERM AND EGGS INVOLVED, PRODUCED IN STRUCTURES, OFTEN
SPECTACULAR IN FORM, CALLED FLOWERS OR BLOOMS
SPERM IS HOUSED IN A CONTAINER CALLED POLLEN.
POLLEN CAN BE CONSIDERED ANALOGOUS TO A PENIS OR INTROMITTENT
TOOL; IT IS A TOOL FOR DELIVERING SPERM CLOSER TO THE EGGS.
STAMENS: THE MALE SEX ORGANS - PRODUCE POLLEN THAT CONTAIN SPERM
PISTIL: THE FEMALE SEX ORGAN
THREE PARTS OF PISTIL
1) TOP = STIGMA RECEIVES POLLEN,
2) BOTTOM = OVARY PRODUCES EGGS
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