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Lecture 4

BIOL 1902 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Virginia Opossum, Eastern Cottontail, Hyalophora Cecropia

Course Code
BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

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BIOL 1902 – Week 4
Monarch caterpillar
-Sequesters cardiac glycosides from milkweeds
Aposematic Colouration:
-Monarch butterfly vs. Viceroy (black line around hind wing = visual clue depicting
difference from monarch)
-Monarch = poisonous; animal who eats monarch, vomits after; model (poisonous)
-Viceroy = edible; mimic (harmless)
Batesian Mimicry:
-Sometimes harmless animals look like poisonous animals
-Bumble Bee (stings; model), Honeybee vs. Hover Fly (sometimes resembles wasps;
harmless; mimic)
-Bald-faced Hornet (stings; model) vs. Hover Fly (harmless; mimic)
-Wasps have 2 pairs of wings, flies have 1 pair
-Hover Flies have special shading in their wings, resembling 2 pairs of wings
Parasitoid wasp:
-Aka thread waisted wasp
-Paralyzes caterpillars w/ 1 sting, drags caterpillars into hole in ground, lays its eggs on it,
comes back out, covers burrow
oWhen eggs hatch, baby wasps eat that caterpillar while it’s still alive & paralyzed
-Sphecid Wasp can sting (model), Systropus (Bee Fly) is harmless (mimic)
Wasps mate in fall:
-Only females that have mated in fall, survive in winter; all others die
-Next spring: 1 pregnant wasp/bumble bee, lay eggs, female feeds & takes care of them
oWhen they emerge as adults, they become slave workers for her
oShe becomes egg-laying machine
-All through summer: big queen bee in the hive, laying more eggs, more workers coming
out, more workers to take care of them, so she lays more eggs
-By end of summer: many wasps flying around
-Yellowjacket Wasp – Batesian mimics: Sugar Maple Borer Beetle, Hover Fly, female
Elfin Skimmer Dragonfly (2nd smallest in world), moth
-If model goes extinct, through evolution, mimics eventually go extinct
Raspberry Crown Borer Moth:
oNumbers of models > # of mimics
oModels & mimics must occur at same time of year
-Carleton’s Dr. Tom Sherratt = world expert on mimicry, aposematism & camouflage
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