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BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

Tuesday, January 4th, 2011 Week 1 Additional Notes Natural History:▯ -real life (longest reality show) ▯ ▯ ▯ -enjoyment of nature (living, breathing, etc) ▯ ▯ ▯ -observational science ▯ ▯ ▯ -interest in natural history (naturalist) ▯ ▯ ▯ -constant need for naturalists -> so many jobs About... Plants - in detail, same as animals in ways of surviving (eat, mate, etc) Animals - include mammals (birds, fish, snakes, insects) *Interactions between plants and animals, animals and animals, etc* Adaptation:▯ ▯ -features or traits that offer plants/animals an advantage ▯ ▯ ▯ -can be physical features (turtle shells, antlers on moose) ▯ ▯ ▯ -can be chemical/physiological features (wasp) ▯ ▯ ▯ -can be behavioural features (flocking: migration of crows) ▯ ▯ ▯ -features that allow a species to pass on their genes -not acts of intelligence/planned solutions, they are features that have taken thousands/ millions of years to evolve -arise because of selective pressures on all living things (include environmental stresses such as temperature, wind, etc AND pressures that arise from other animals/plants such as competition for food, sunlight, pressure from predators, potential mates and offspring) -change colour (camouflage) -these forces are natural selection (Charles Darwin) -never ending and driving force behind evolution -in nature if you are not equipped with survival traits, you are in danger -Genetic survival: key to life -> it is immortality Tuesday, January 4th, 2011 Defences of Animals: PHYSICAL Problem #1 Staying Alive Three types of defenses - physical (camouflage: art of not being seen), chemical, behavioural -animals hides so well because they match the same colours and patterns as the background of their habitat: camouflage -cryptic behaviour, camouflaging and remaining motionless: cryptic colouration -background matching “with a twist” is when the animal has the same general pattern/ colours as the background Eg. Gray tree frog (will change colour depending on what environment it is in, very rare with animals. Chameleon is famous for this) -even as a tadpole it has to background match for camouflage Background Matching -Background matching: same colours and appearances as the environment inhabited Eg. ground nesting birds, some caterpillars, Eastern Screech-Owl -colour change can also occurr seasonally ▯ *Snowshoe Hare changes from brown to white depending on the season ▯ -not exactly background matching until they are white in the winter ▯ -also called Varying Hare because it changes colour based on the season ▯ -only other mammal that does is the Urman Weasel ▯ *uncommon in animals locally, more common in northern animals* Field: -lots of stripes/vertical lines -field habitat, birds have lots of stripes on
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