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BIOL 1902 (379)

Additional Notes 2.pdf

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Carleton University
BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

▯ January 11, 2011 Week 2 Additional Notes Masquerade: the body is formed into a shape non-animal like Mimickry: looking like something else Eg. Sphinx Moth: has background matching and mimickry ▯ -main principle: Background matching, being cryptic **If Background Matching and Mimickry do not succeed, there is “Plan B”** Startle Patterns -bright colored patterns or eye spots that appear suddenly Eg Sphinx Moth: “hawk” moth Eg Underwings: fly at night, underwing is under cover Eg Polyphemus: big eye spots to startle attacker -Startle Patterns are different so that they wonʼt become habituate and wonʼt startle anymore Eg Gray Tree Frogs: back part of leg is bright yellow Eg Grasshopper: (banned wing grasshopper) bands of color on the wings Eg Ring-necked Snakes/Red Bellied Snakes: underside is yellow/red *All these patterns are made to scare attacker *Startle patterns are hidden until needed (not all eye spots are hidden, meaning they are not all startle patterns) Distraction Patterns Eg Eyed Elater: have fake eyes for deception and intimidation Eg Tiger Swallowtail Caterpillar: big eyes, seems to have fake eyes Startle Patterns can be used to: -startle -distract attacker (create distraction patterns to that specific part of the body) -Some butterflies have fake antenae as distraction so attacker will try and attack that part Eg Tailed Blue Butterfly: fake tails and eye spots Eg Tiger Swallowtail Butterflies: fake tails Eg Fink: younger and females have blue tails (easily detachable so that if predator touches tail, it falls off and it can still escape, and it moves around to distract) Autotomy: grows back on itʼs own ▯ January 11, 2011 Hard Physical Defenses -some animals use parts of the environment to create a masquerade in terms of having camouflage traits Eg Leaf Roller Eg Staghorn Sumac: cut inside and there are little animals - colony of aphids **Physical Defences can consist of Body Armour** Eg Millipede -lots of legs -when under attack they curl into a ball so that the hardest body armour is visible, but legs and head are hidden Eg Snails -shell with trap door to not let anything in -can be made of calcium Eg Turtles -pull arms and head inside shell -upper shell and lower shell *Blandingʼs Turtle: can pull bottom part of shell up and partially protect head *Physical Defenses can be hard body armor, color patterns, appearances, and soft body parts* Soft Physical Defenses Eg Eastern Tent Caterpillar Web -build
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