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Addtional notes 3.pdf

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Carleton University
BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

▯ January 18, 2011 Week 3 Additional Notes Review Aposematic - warning Mullerian Mimicry - all armed in the same way Bastesian Mimicry - one that is harmless (mimic), one that is (model) Chemical Defenses -American Toadʼs have the BUFOTALIN in skin glands -not all animals that have a poisonous defense are brightly coloured -they have a behavioural defense, by blowing themselves up to look bigger Behavioral Defenses Eg Hog-Nosed Snakes -puff up and look fierce -if that does not work, they play dead -they do this because some animals kill snakes out of fear -teeth back in the mouth so they can bite the toad and deflate it -playing dead = thanatosis Eg Blister Beetles -also play dead Eg Virginia Opossum -also plays dead Eg Beaver -when frightened, wacks tail (tail slap) Eg Carpenter Ants -”paid” to protect Aphids by giving them food -collect sugar and give them back to the colony -proof that there are ʻbody guardsʼ in nature Eg Bees and Wasps -group defense -deploy a different defense -ATTACK PHEROMONES summon the troops ▯ -as soon as one goes, they all go Eg Birds -also group defense ▯ January 18, 2011 -called “mobbing” -it is a behavioural defense that involves a group strategy -it is a pre-emptive defense (trying to avoid something bad from happening in the future) -when birds start screaming, you have a mob daytime benefit of mobbing: -harrass it enough, it will leave the habitat -just to clear it out and make it safer for them Eg when coyote tried to run away, ravenʼs started to attack it *snakes canʼt hear* Pishing 101 -inspires small birds to mob -also a group defense (flying around, moving in a group) Flocking might: a) look like one big organism (confuse each predator, intimidation) b) make it safer for each bird (safety in numbers = increased vigilance) Vigilance: being alert and
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