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BIOL 2005 (40)

Gait Cycle

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BIOL 2005
Elizabeth Nisbet

Outline of Lecture 03 Gait I. Phases of Gait - Gait cycle = Stance phase (heel strike, flat foot, toe off) + swing phase - 5/6 gait cycles is stance, rest is swing; ¼ of gait cycle has double support - Transfer of weight during stance from heel along footprint to big toe - Flexor hallucis longus tendon passes through sesamoid bone tunnel, allows movement while weight is on big toe II. Ballistic model of gait - Lower limb forms inverted pendulum; most of gait is passive rocking over stance leg - Gait speed determined by height and gravity - Walking is very efficient (~60-70% energy recovery; total energy relatively constant) - Must break into running at lower speeds when going uphill, and vice versa III. Mechanisms to minimize displacement of body center of gravity - With no mechanisms, path of body center is cycloid; with mechanisms nearly flat - Pelvic rotation and plantarflexion raise lowest point - Pelvic tilt and knee flexion lower highest point IV. Muscles used during gait - Provide accel. during toe-off, support swing leg side, smooth transitions, and stabilize lower limb by deceleration
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