Outline of Lecture 01 (01-06 A; Ruff)
Synovial Joints, Hip
0. Overview of joint types
A. Fibrous: low/no mobility; fibrous connective tissue
- sutures – in skull
- syndesmosis – unites bones via sheets of fibrous tissue (eg. Interosseous membrane)
B. Cartilaginous: some mobility; hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage
- eg: pubic symphysis, intervertebral bodies, manubrium -> 1 ribt
C. Synovial: high mobility; several components, below
- eg: most limb joints!
I. Introduction to Synovial Joints
1. Constant Components
- bone: compact and/or trabecular
- Hyaline cartilage: extent determines range of motion; covers all contact
surfaces between bones
- synovial membrane/cavity: between the two bones
• Synovial cavity has no blood supply; nourished by synovial fluid,
- synovial fluid: hyaline cartilage + synovial fluid => very slippery surface
- fibrous capsule: surrounds joint and
2. Optional Components
- fibrocartilage (deepen cavity, promote sliding): located w/in synovial cav.
Labrum: complete rim around joint; deepens concavity
Disk: fibrocartilege ring across joint; strengthens joint
Meniscus: partial disk (moon-shaped
- fat pad: space filler in joint
- Intracapsular tendon: passes thru fibrous capsule but not thru synovial cav.
- bursa(e): double-walled pockets of synovial membrane filled with fluid that
facilitaes movment (independent or continuous with joint)
B. Joint motions
- axis of rotation: point/line which remains stationary during joint movement
- Abduction: moving away from the median plane of the body.
- Adduction: moving toward the median plane of the body.
- Extension: straightening or increasing the angle between body parts.
- Flexion: bending of a part or decreasing the angle between body parts.
- Protonation: medial rotation of the arm such that the palm faces posteriorly.
- Supination: lateral rotation of the arm such that the palm faces anteriorly.
- Rotation: internal or external with relation to a long bone
II. Review of Pelvis
- Innominate (os coxae): three bones ossify separately, fuse in early 20’s * Ilium
- Anterior/Posterior superior/inferior iliac spine (all 4 combos)
- Iliac crest
- Greater sciatic notch (inferior part of it is ischial)
- Iliac tuberosity
- Ala (wing)
- Iliac fossa: anterior surface of ilum (aka ala)
- Gluteal surface: posterior surface of ilum
* Ischium: primary support when sitting
- Ischial spine
- Lesser sciatic notch
- Ischial tuberosity
- Pubic tub