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Carleton University
BIOL 2005
Elizabeth Nisbet

Outline of Lecture 01 Thorax • It would be way too long to describe every structure. So, this list is really to jog your memory. For each structure, try to recall shape, location, function, and relationships. Check notes to verify your memory. • “” indicates a relationship to another structure. Try to recall what the relationship is. • mn. means mnemonic I. Thoracic Wall A. Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12) Body Pedicle Lamina Transverse process (facets  ribs) Articular projections (superior and inferior) Spinous process Vertebral foramen ( Vertebral canal  Spinal cord) Intervertebral discs B. Sternum Jugular notch Manubrium ( ribs 1 and 2) Sternal angle (more accurately, sternal angle  rib 2) Body ( ribs 2 through 7) Xiphoid process (ossifies later in life) C. Ribs General 12 pairs of ribs (corresponds to T1-T12) Ribs 1-7 attach to sternum via costal cartilage (1 and 2 are atypical) Ribs 8-10 attach using costal cartilage of superior rib Ribs 11-12 are floating, no tubercles or necks Ribs slant inferiorly (e.g. rib 2 (sternal angle) in line with T4/T5) Structures of the Rib Head ( two vertebral bodies) Neck Tubercle (articular facet  vertebral transverse process) Body Costal groove ( intercostal vein, artery, nerve) Costal cartilage ( sternum, made of hyaline cartilage) Structures of the Intercostal Space Intercostal muscles (superficial to deep): external, internal, innermost Neurovascular bundle (superior to inferior, mn: VAN) - IC vein  azygos/hemizygos, internal thoracic/musculophrenic veins - IC arteries  internal thoracic/musculophrenic, superior intercostals/thoracic aorta arteries - IC nerves: are ventral rami of T1-T11 spinal nerves D. Lymphatics Parasternal lymph nodes Phrenic lymph nodes (Axillary lymph nodes) II. Thoracic Cavity A. Mediastinum General: between right and left pleural sacs Structures (divided sup/inf by level of sternal angle)
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