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BIOL 2005 (40)

Immune System

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BIOL 2005
Elizabeth Nisbet

IMMUNE SYSTEM- protects host from diverse microorganisms and products -responds to anything perceived as foreign -attacking “self” = autoimmune disease Pathogens (smallestlargest) 1. Virus (HIV) 2. Bacteria (Staph) 3. Fungi (pneumocystic carini) 4. Parasites (African Trypanosomiasis) Antigens-substances to which specific immune responses are made (diversity of responses) Antibodies-proteins that bind specifically to antigens (secreted by B-cells) -millions, b/c of special genetic mechanisms for the generation of diversity Effector Mechanisms-after recognition, deals with foreign antigen. (differs by pathogen) Characteristics of Adaptive (aquired) Immune Response Specificity-response depends on specific pathogen Memory-response to a pathogen is remembered to elicit a faster response if pathogen is encountered again. Problems of Adaptive Immunity -Slow to develop (few days vs. rapid replication rate of microbes) -Somatically generated diversity (not inherited) -Random specificities (can lead to “self” attack Characteristics of Innate (natural) Immunity Rapid, Less Specific -keeps pathogen in check until the AI response matures (Immune system evolves slower than microbes) Goals of “Layered” Immune System 1. Skin and Mucosol surfaces = barrier -depends on tight junctions and secreted antimicrobial substances (muc, acid, defensins, lys, lipids, etc) 2. Innate Immunity  rapid response with
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