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Lecture 1

BIOL 2903 Lecture 1: Lecture 1 BIOL Natural His

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BIOL 2903
Michael Runtz

Types of Rock in Ontario – Natural History (Lecture 1) Biodiversity – total number of plants (flora) and animals (fauna). This is short form for biological diversity. Total number and variety of living things (flora and fauna) in the area. Ontario total biodiversity = >100,000 species Reptiles and amphibians = Herptiles (50 species in Ontario), Fish = 154 species, Mammals = 81 species, and Birds = 490 species. Invertebrates = 172 species of dragonflies & damselflies, 148 butterflies, while beetles have thousands of species. Why so many Species of animals in Ontario? – lots of plants, fresh water availability, diversity of environments. Size of the province is large (> 1 million km^2), great range of abiotic factors (temperature, range of precipitation, wind – effects erosion, soil type – some soils retain water better then other soils), fire, rock type (rocks are made of minerals providing nutrients that plants require – affect nutrient supply and soil chemistry). Types of Bedrock (a) Sedimentary Rock The rock under any given area is called bedrock. Some bedrock is flat and layered they are formed from sediments in water, they are called sedimentary rock. Young rocks are between 400-500million years old. Limestone is a sedimentary rock. The rock is rich in calcium (calcium carbonate) and is relatively soft and has a basic pH. When HCl is poured on it – effervescence (bubbles up due to calcium content). Some limestone is made from animals whose fossils remains are full of calcium. Poison ivy – grows on this rock because it likes calcium (basic soil – they are calciphilic). (b) Igneous Rock Other rocks were formed from molten rock (magma) deep underground. They are not layered. They are called igneous rocks (lacking calcium and lots of silica they are hard and acidic). Granite is a common igne
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