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BIOL 2903
Connie Kristiansen

Lecture 3 –b , Natural history of Ontario 1 th January 25  2012  Boreal Forest or BF ( continue)  1. Spruce and Balsam fir needles are food for a very famous caterpillar - Spruce Budworms actually enhance the survival of the spruce threes by knocking down the competition such as the Balsam Fir seeding • Takes about 7 years for the spruce budworms to affect its area • They poop alot, they add nutrient for the soil • They ( Spruce Budworms) also affect the survival of birds: → Such the Warblers These 3 warblers’ species are commonly known as Budworm warblers: I. Tennessee Warbler II. Bay-breasted Warbler III. Cape May Warbler During budworm outbreaks these warblers nest twice ( thus have 2 nests) and have more young survive H OW CAN THEY FEED ON THE SAME FOOD WITHOUT COMPETITION A. T HEY SPLIT THE RESOURCES BY FEEDING DIFFERENT PARTS OF TREE – THIS IS CALL NICHE PARTITIONING 2. If the trees dies thus warblers do kill the trees , other animals benefit - Such as the Bark Beetles which eat the wood of the trees Lecture 3 –b , Natural history of Ontario 2 • They are eaten by woodpeckers such as: o the Black- backed woodpecker – have bigger beak o American Three- toed woodpecker o Woodpecker I. Note: well their beak size this allows these two woodpecker to Niche Partitioning 3. Trimming aspen are also call Poplars - This tree provides another major source of food in the BF well its bark - Eaten by : I. porcupines II. beavers are also very common 4. Leaves are food for small animals – some years large tracts of forest are defoliated ( well meaning that the leaves are gone) - Such as : I. the serpentine miner II. Canadian tiger swallowtail caterpillar – they are very common III. Forest tent caterpillar ( have some hairs, so birds do not really like them) o Leave the tree once the leaves are gone, they go from one tree to another o They crawl to the other tree ( go across the ground) - some years large tracts of forest are defoliated ( well meaning that the leaves are gone) – meaning that if have large pop. Of caterpillars the forest will lose it leaves Lecture 3 –b , Natural history of Ontario 3 o These large pop. Are called outbreaks 5. lots of caterpillars means : o parasitoids flies such as flesh fly – they lye their legs on the caterpillar o fire I. it’s very important part to the BF II. it’s a powerful agent of change III. fireweed thrives in recently burned areas  fireweed’s seeds are dispersed by wind  they ( fireweed) are joined by other plants such as elderberry, and blueberries who seeds just like elderberry arrive by bears ( after the fire is gone, thus fire helps bears thus create a foraging habitat for bears)  so fire is good for bears 6. Woodpeckers use dead trees for nesting , these trees are dead because caused by fire 1. Vacant holes are usurped ( taking over ) by cavity adopters
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