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Carleton University
BIOL 2903
Connie Kristiansen

Lecture 4 – a , Natural 1 st February 1  2012  Boreal Forest   Beavers build dams and create ponds  Beaver ponds increase the biodiversity of any region especially in the BF  W HY BEAVER CREATE PONDS ? - To eat in safety - Safe access to resources - To have water deep enough to not free to the bottom  Western Boreal 0r prairie boreal a) Is the driest and warmest part of the BF b) Is close to the prairies c) The elevation is not really high ( 350 m ASL ) – so not really high d) Bare rock is visible everywhere – thus no matter where you are in the western boreal rocks are visible e) Some of the rock are 2.3 billion years, they are some of the oldest rocks on the planet f) Black spruce and Jack pine are dominant trees I. Jack Pines are very common in the western boreal: a) They are habitat for : - this habitat are created by the fire because it regenerates Jack pines → Spruce grouse → Kirtland’s warblers • only found in Jack pines between 5 to 15 years of age ( its the age of the jack pines, thus this bird needs fire) • they are not currently found in the western BF Lecture 4 – a , Natural 2 g) Conifer seeds: I. Are also food II. Jack Pines cones are extremely hard and stay closed for years 1. How do their seed open? • Jack Pines are fire-adopted trees • Its cones are slow to open even if their a fire and it’s called serotinous • Its takes 50 degree celcius to melt the resin and to open the scales • The fire regenerates Jack pines Jack pines are sun loving tree. Thus in the western boreal forest there must be alot of fire because they’re a lot of jack pines • Thus the ecology of the western bf is driven by fire and also poplars do benefit for it h) The coniferous woods are habitats for birds such as: I. Spruce Grouse II. White-winged crossbills III. As well as birds that need forest for nesting and food, such as Boral Chickadee and yellow- bellied flycatcher IV. As well as birds that nest in the prairie boreal such as : Black-bulled Magpies i) What benefits from fire: I. Sharp- tailed grouse – they need burned areas, found more in the northern part of the boreal forest but are also common in the western part of the B II. Jack pines III. Poplars IV. Kirtland’s warblers j) Fire is a major part of the Western Boreal ( on avery fires occur every 50 – 100 years) Lecture 4 – a , Natural 3 I. Low amount of annua
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