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Lecture 1- b, Natural of Ontario.docx

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BIOL 2903
Connie Kristiansen

Natural History of OntarioLecture 1- B 1 th January 12  2012  The Tundra  Basically it's the part if the Canadian shield that extends down between the great lakes / st-lawrence lowland that separates the lowland into northern and southern.  The tundra rises 400 per 100 year bcz: Of the Isostatic Rebound  The tundra is the last place wind being glaciated  Half of Canada’s rivers drain/flows into Hudson Bay – like the Winisk River  Any where below if the height of land the river flows south – into the Great Lakes and the ST. Lawrence, and above river flow north into Hudson ( its tie to the Arctic Ocean)  Lots of freshwater pounds  Freshwater rivers drain through the Tundra into Husdon Bay – so Freshwater reside from the Tundra to Hudson Bay → Ex: Like the Brant River → These river have no dams → But see beaver dam → No men made river dam  Inland the tundra get drier  Its has the largest number of thermokarst lakes in the world  In its freshwater ponds, lakes resides: - → Very few herps o Like the wood frog o Boreal chorus frog H OW DO THESE 2 FROGS SURVIVE THE WINTER SINCE ITS SO COLD? - BECAUSE THEY ARE FREEZE TOLERANT Natural History of Ontario,Lecture 1- B 2 → Can be some fish → They are also habitats for mammals: o Like River Otter → They are some birds o – such as Northern ducks: such as Scaup, Scoters o Tundra Swans – they indicate where you are thus indicator species, because only found in the Tundra o Geese such as Canada Geese, Snow Geese • Geese arrive in late spring to nest- they build their nest on the ground • They have a negative effect on the Tundra W HY ?  BCZ They selectively eliminate plants by digging out their roots bcz these plants are part of their diet. Thus changing the landscape bcz some plants are disappearing.  Geese pop alot, their dropping are call nitrogen, which changes the chemistry of the soil producing new species of plants * they become more common, and eliminating common plants • W HY SO MANY GEESE ? • Bcz when they stop at the prairies before going to the tundra they fatten up, thus even if there is not food for them in the tundra they are able to reproduce- this what has been happening in the last century • When they arrive in the tundra, food is not present for them females depend on stored reserve, if they come back in real poor shape or delay cold period in the spring they do not produce lots of eggs some year their 0 eggs Natural History of Ontario, Lecture 1- B 3 Hudson Bay   Because freshwater found in the Tundra ( freshwater input) is also found in Hudson bay , their only 1/3 of salinity of the Ocean ( 1/3 of salt content) P ROBLEM IS THAT BY ADDING FRESHWATER TO SALT WATER , THE WATER CAN NOW FREEZE WHICH ASLO AFFECT THE ANIMALS  One challenge presented in Hudson Bay is: the salt water. Salt water – animals have to deal with salt – well animals which eat fish ( Fish- eaters) such as loons → Animals that eat salt water fish - deal with salt water because a special gland in their head that remove salt from the blood, the gland is call = salt gland, → The salt water is also an habitat for marine mammals such as: o Ringed o Bearded seals o Walruses ( they are very large animals, they have massive tugs on top of their head, it also made for walking, they also use it to dig out clamps, fight, unlike seas they don’t have dense hair, they turn pink in the summer, found off the Cape Henrietta Maria ) o Beluga Whales o Polar bears- southernmost animals of polar bears eat seals and walrus are food for the for polar bears, as soon as Hudson Bay they fast all through the winter to sea
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