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Lecture 1-a Natural.docx

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Carleton University
BIOL 2903
Connie Kristiansen

Natural History, 1 –a 1 Lecture 1 – A, January 10 2012  (Rocks that bubble bcz they have calcium, thus banded rocks do not bubble) Youngest rocks are:   Sedimentary rocks → Only been formed in 350 = 450 millions year ago → They underlie lowlands Oldest rocks in Ontario:   Ingneous and metamorphic rocks → These rocks underlie highlands → Formed 2 Billions ago → Slower to decompose Rock type and lay of the land = physiographic regions  → Hudson bay Lowlands have sedimentary rocks → Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowland , have little piece of the Canadian shield → Canadian Shield – here see older rocks mostly acidic , it massive      ROCKA IS AN IMPORTANT ABIODIC  FACTOR  (BUT  IS THAT  POWERFUL  ?)­ NO  WATER      ISMORE POWERFUL     Recall that water is an important factor  in Ontario’s biodiversirty   → Its an habitat that forms plants and animals Natural History, 1 –a 2 → Its indirectly creates habitat – because water moves and that it brings along dissolves or un- dissolves material → It carries and sorts materials by size and weight → Fast water carries every away but the largest and heaviest particles such as boulders and gravel → When moving water is slow it drops small particles such as sand → Still water deposit the smallest, finest particles such as silt and clay ( is impervious – keeps water from draining, thus hold water very well) → Glacial are water that are frozen → Water can move large rocks, scratch, smooth surface top of a rock, because of water in form of ice over the past millions yrs ice covered all of Ontario several times → Ice age (was call the Pleistocene) → The glaciers scoured the rocks and destroyed all life in Ontario → Glacial deposit have important consequences such as flora and Fauna → Glacial erratic was moved by the glacial → Water is arguably the most powerful force to affect and have affected Ontario’s natural history → Only takes a small drop of temperature to form glacial But how did life return after the Glaciers ?   Lichens colonized the rocks → They are combination of a fungus and a algae or cyanobacteria )that lives together- symbiotic relationship ( help each other) → Some lichens are like a crust on the rock – they are stuck to the rock they are called Crustose lichens they are pioneer species ( are the first to arrive in the scene, first to live on a rock ) → Some lichens are like little shrubs – they are Fructicose lichens : → Foliose lichens are leaf- like → Other lichens grow on trees are called: Arboreal Lichens Natural History, 1 –a 3 → As lichens grow on rocks, the start a whole process called Succession: • Mosses often grow lichen but they can also be colonized – they catch materials blown by the wind • Lichens and mosses physically trap wind- blown soil called Loes • When they die, mosses and lichens add more nutrients to the developing soil • Once soil is establish, other plans grow • Water also dissolves/erodes rocks,( limestone dissolves faster than granites ) dissolving it elements and minerals • These plants help to break down the rock by EROSION, add minerals to the developing soil • Eventually soil and forest cover the land • These forests support a diversity array of plants and animals But if the glaciers removed from life. Where did the plants and animals comes  from ?   The spot that weren’t glaciated are called : Glacial refugia  Have no native earth worms in Ontario  Poplars and white Birch are often the first trees to colonize new soil – they are pioneer species • They are shade intolerant thus need sun • Create their own problems bcz grow to tall and block/provide shade for their offspring S HADE - OLERANT  Shade- tolerant trees such as Spruce Fir – check this out grow under them ( poplars and white Birch) Natural History, 1 –a 4  Others shade- tolerant such as sugar maples may grow under shade- intolerant  Replacement of trees is called succession  Shade- tolerant tress over take the forest and become dominant – so shade- intolerant are excluded because sugar maples keep on reproducing  If the forest remains relatively stable and replaces itself, it is known as Climate forest – such as the sugar maples BUT WHY DO WE GET CONIFERS AS CLIMAX IN SOME AREAS ? AND DECIDUOUS TREES IN OTHERS ?  Because of site conditions= environmental conditions such as te
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