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Lecture 2

Organizational Behaviour Lecture 2 Notes.docx

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Carleton University
BUSI 2101
Troy Anderson

Organizational Behaviour Lecture 2 Notes Chapters 8 & 9 Perception and Attribution and Communication  Perception  ­ The processes by which we select, organize, and evaluate the stimuli in our  environment to make it meaningful for ourselves. Selective Attention ­ Perceived Stimuli (selective attention) ­ Unnoticed Stimuli Factors that affect what we perceive ­  Intern l o Motives, Values, Interests, Attitudes, Past Experiences and Expectations ­  Externa  o Motion, Intensity, Size, Novelty and Salience Past experiences effect perception Ex) The witch and the lady in the picture Attribution Theory ­ When people observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally  or externally caused ­ People look for information about consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness to  decide on causation  ­ Consensus o Do others behave similarly ­ Consistency o Did the person act this way before? ­ Distinctiveness o Does the person behave this way in other contexts? ­ Casual Judgment o Internal Causation  Behaviour explained by internal factors o External Causation  Behaviour explained by external Factors Self­Serving Bias ­ The tendency for people to attribute their success to internal factors while blaming  external factors for their failures ­ Men use this more than women Fundamental Attribution Error ­ The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate  the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of  others ­ Women use this more often Communication The Communication Process ­ Sender o The person who initializes the communication ­ Encoding o Using words (verbal, written, non­verbal) o Encode based on their unique perceptions (self­concept, family, culture,  skills, feelings, attitudes and values) ­ Receiver o The person who receives the message o Interpret the message using their unique perceptions (self­concept, family,  culture, skills, feelings, attitudes and values) ­ Decoding o The receiver decodes the message according to different individual  perceptions ­ Feedback o The sender asks for feedback and the receiver responds with feedback o Non­verbal feedback ­ Channel o The means of conveying the message ­ Interference o Changes or distorts the message ­ Competence o People can learn and improve by practices ­ Noise o Anything that interferes with the intended communication 1) Environmental 2) Physiological 3) Emotional ­ Feedforward o The sender saying how to interpret the upcoming message ­ Altercast o Put yourself in my shoes, get the person to understand ­ Arc of Distortion o What a communicates but does not intend o Decrease it by face­to­face communication o Increase it by using technological communication ­ Sources of Distortion o Lack of clarity o Individual differences in encoding or decoding o Gender Organizational Behaviour Lecture 2 Notes Chapters 8 & 9 o Culture o Perception o Misinterpretation of nonverbal communication o Defensiveness o Lack of feedback and clarification o Poor listening skills o Noise Nonverbal communication ­ We communicate as much (if not more) through nonverbal communication as  verbally o Facial expressions o Gestures o Paralinguistics (vocal aspects of communication) o Body language and posture o Proxemics o Eye Contact o Hapatics (tough – sympathy, familiarity, affection) ­ Universality of non­verbal communication Universal Facial 
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