• 2 minute essay: What lessons do you draw from changes in opinion towards immigration?
How might this affect Canada’s image in the world?
Transformations Among Politicians:
o Do values build a country? Who defines the values?
Harper equates Canadian values with Conservative values
Layton equated Canadian values with something quite different
Why Do Politicians Change?
• Emphasize patriotism instead:
o For example, in 1997, Stephan Harper said Canada is a welfare state in the worst sense
of the term (no national culture). In 2011, he said Canada is the best country in the
world. He changes his opinion for electoral purposes and because of the changes in
• Shifts in Canadian identity and the rise of “values politics.” For example, before politics was
about economics, but in the last 15 years, noted that elections were increasingly about social
Canada and visions of the countries, because ideological differences on economic issues have
• Left side (NDP has mainstreamed in order to gain attraction of citizens), people on the right
complain that the Harper government isn’t being conservative enough. There have been
changes in our economic thinking and people have adopted an outlook where economic
issues are not talked about and there is no trust in politics to improve the country.
• National identity: is linked to political community. Our sense of being Canadian is linked to
a political community called Canada; we are citizens and we value that citizenship.
o National identity is multidimensional; nation does not equal state. Canada is a country
filled with diversity and all of that contributes to a sense of being Canadian. Canada did
not have a sense of identity like Americans, but that does not mean Canada did not have
a national identity, many of our values emerged out of our actions.
Can we conceive of a multidimensional national identity rooted in common
sentiments and public policy/institutions?
o National identity is a persistent sentiment. It is something that it is important to us.
o So what is the Canadian identity? Is it linked to actions, pride and confidence, val