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CDNS 2400 (22)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8 Cultural Landscapes.docx

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Canadian Studies
CDNS 2400
Stuart Lazear

Lecture 8 Cultural Landscapes March 6 2013 Guest Lecture: Lisa Prosper • Cultural landscape developer – was student in cultural landscape • They are an idea that the heritage field is not comfortable with- area of great exploration/curiosity • Goal to give standard understanding of cultural landscape from heritage perspective Cultural Landscapes as Heritage • Carl Sauer – the morphology of the landscape – 1925 o Where the term came from; Sauer was a geographer • This definition is the origin for cultulra landscape: • “The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural area othe medium, the cultural landscape is the result… • Culture and human existence were determined by environmental forces • Culture can influence environment – the two work together rot form cultural landscape (new idea of thinking at the time) Embedded assumptions • Focuses on visible forms as principle features of analysis • Focuses on shape rather than shaping of landscape • Assumes culture is: super-organic; homogenous; distinct from nature o Assumption that it’s ‘evil’; againt landscape • ‘…the material expression of a (seemingly unified) cultural group who live in that region.’ • Cultural Landscape and UNESCO • UNESCO is where the definition of cultural landscape entered the discourse of heritage • It became the place where the concept was defined for heritage • The Lake District, U.K. (image shown) o 1986 saw nomination of this property and again in 1989 o three reasons were identified for why it had universal value:  was a rural landscape with farming traditions that went back a long time which were evident in the landscape (distinct farming system; i.e. fields separated by pasture lands and differentiated by stone walls). – physical evidence  they associated it with the development of the picturesque – the picturesque landscape that became a destination to those interested (i.e. the romantic poets, i.e. Worsworth)  Assocation with poets • It was put twice without designation because the committee said thatht ey do not have clear criteria to rule on this type of property o We’re not opposed to the idea, but it doesn’t meet any of the current criteria • Committee then developed another organization for these criteria UNESCO Operational Guidelines • Made changes to the definitions of UNESCO • Definition: ‘the combined works of nature and of man’ o They modified site to include works of nature and man – fundamental definition of cultural landscape • Criteria: insertion of the diea of landscape into three of the six cultural criteria for outstanding universal value • Categories: clearly defined; organically evolved; associative UNESCO Categories • Clearly defined landscapes: designed and created intentiaonlly by man • Gardens and parklands • Constructed for aesthetic reasons • Associated with religious or other monumental buildings/ensembles o i.e. the environment/surroundings o i.e. Versailles UNESCO Definitions • example from Manitoba – community positioned its main functions along the main road • Organically evolved landscape: results from a social, economic, administrative or religious imperative and has developed its present form by asoaition with and in response to its natural envionrment • This process of evlution is reflected in its form and component features • Result of trying to make a livelihood and reform • Relict (fossil) landscape: the evolutionary process came to an end at some point in the past • Its significant distinguishing features are still visible in material form • The trail in the west (image shown) shows relics of manmade objects • Continuiing landscape: retains an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with the traditional way of life • The evolutionary process is still in progress • The landscape exhibits significant material evidence of its evolution over time • Image – Grand peree?? In Nova Scotia • Associative cultural landscapes: recognizes powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural elements rather than material cultural evidence which may be insignificant or absent o When cultural landscapes were welcomes into the UNESCO criteria, they immediately desgineated two properties under this catergory: national park in Australia and a national park in New Zealand o These sites had strong meaning for those communities within these parks o The Lake district in their new region has been associated with these definitions – being mobilized to get designated Characteristics • Critical analysis on cultural landscapes - Focus on: o Material transformation of physical environment o Monumental qualities of intervention o Form discourages change and encourages visual methodologies o Preservation of place not practice  You’re interested in more the way the Lake district looks less than the practices that make it look that way  Less interested in the farming practices that survive and more interested in the stone walls that survive o They way they understand the landscape is almost like a building Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes Definition of ACL • Where do you start with no built cultural evidence? • Aboriginal cultural landscapes are first and foremost defined by a close relationship between culture and place that is produced and reproduced through a series of cultural expressions and practices o Cultural landscaped affected by practices in time What are these cultural expressions and practices? • Traditional knowledge and skills o Skills and knowledge that are essential to living off the land o i.e. harvesting of plants/animals, constructing a structure, canoe, etc o knowledge of this kind is often placed in time specific o its transmission requires being in a particular place in a particular time o If you don’t have access to place, and you’re not able to do the seasonal activities, then you might not have the opportunity to learn how to make the canoe • Place names and oral narratives o In this case, this means the distribution of toponyms across a territory o Toponym – name derived from feature: i.e. if there’s stone, the name will reflect this o Place name in the aboriginal language does this – almost descriptive o Place names actually act as ways of recalling something  i.e. when it’s hunting season, and you come across a rock, you recall a story to tell someone and pass that knowledge on o it’s often described that the land is like a book – it holds together the oral narratives of the culture; they literally read the landscape o ‘traditioanl place names serve as memory nodes’ – physical geography, ordered by palce names is transformed into a social landscape where culture and topography are symbolically used • Traditioanl and ceremonial practices o i.e. annual hunts, preparation of fish Images show harvesting of rice in traditional way – practice of Ojibwe • Continues to play a significant role their lives • Wil
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