CGSC 2001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Embodied Cognitive Science, Embodied Cognition, Shrdlu

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COGSCI Tuesday March 17, 2015
Embodied Cognition
Emotion and Cognitive Science Recap
A precise definition of emotion is illusive
There are two common models of emotion
oDiscrete vs. dimensional
Dimensional = valence vs. arousal
There are four components to emotion
oPhysiological, behavioural, experiential, and cognitive
Emotion and memory, emotion and decision-making are examples of how emotions impact
cognition
Embodiment Theory of Emotion
oTwo key aspects:
Simulation: perceiving emotion in others or thinking about emotions both
involve re-experiencing that emotion by simulating it ourselves
Ex. Disgust experiment, bear sighting
Impact of bodily expression: our bodily expressions of emotionally-related
behaviours impacts how we feel and our physiology
Ex. Posture tests, smiling/frowning and cartoons, nodding/shaking
heads and pen preference, and power poses
oAdvantages: simple survival (disgust study), empathy (partner study), performance
(power poses)
The idea that emotion is embodied suggests that our bodies play an integral role in emotional
expression
The notion of embodiment also extends to models of purely-cognitive processing
oEmbodied Cognitive Science
Cognitive Science: Three Schools of Thought
“Traditional” Approaches
oClassical Cognitive Science
Physical symbol systems
oConnectionist Cognitive Science
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COGSCI Tuesday March 17, 2015
Neural networks
Embodied Cognition
“Traditional” Cognitive Science
Central claim is that cognition is computation
oComputation = the manipulation of representations (be they symbolic or subsymbolic)
Construes cognition as an iterative sense-think-act cycle
oEx. SHRDLU
oIn general, the “think” part is emphasized
o“think” is the part that produces a buffer between sensing and action, producing what is
known as the “classical sandwich”
The role of representation is emphasized and the role of the body in cognition is deemphasized
oEx. Brain in a jar thinking
oThe mind is essentially disembodied
oRarely concerned with “how does the structure of the body influence cognition?”
Examples of the “classical sandwich”
oPSS (ID3 and SHAKEY) and Neural Nets
oConnectionism still follow the “classical sandwich”
Still emphasizes the role of representation (the think part)
Argues that there is a subsymbolic account of representation
oPurpose of cognition: Build representations of the world and act on representations
Issues with the traditional approach:
oThis approach hasn’t taken gotten that far – long way off from understanding
intelligence
oPossibly due to the following problems:
Started from the hardest problem (understanding human intelligence)
The fundamentalist approach of understanding cognition is flawed
Lack of real world problems
Representation is the wrong unit of abstraction in building the bulkiest
parts of intelligent systems (Brooks)
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