CGSC 2001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Travelling Salesman Problem, Embodied Cognition, Symbol Grounding Problem

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COGSCI Thursday March 19, 2015
Embodied Cognition
Recap
Approaches to cognition
oTraditional approach: cognition = the manipulation of representations (can be symbolic
or subsymbolic)
The role of the body and the mind is not emphasized
oEmbodied approach: emphasizes the role of the body and the role of the environment in
shaping cognition
Role of representation is still found in embodiment, just not emphasized
oEmbodied cognition spectrum
The role of representation depends on which embodied cognition researcher is
involved
Radical = representation is minimized or abolished (sense – act)
oAn organism’s body in interaction with its environment replaces
the need for representations processes thought to have been at
the core of cognition
Moderate = representation is still present (sense – think – act)
oargues that the traditional concepts and methods of cognition
science should be replaced with alternatives
oThree themes of embodied cognition
Replacement: an organisms body, through interaction with its environment,
replaces the need for representational processes thought to have been at the
core of cognition
Conceptualization: an agent’s understanding of its world depends critically
upon the nature of the agent’s body
Constitution: the environment is an integral part of cognitive processing
The first two themes are about “how” cognition occurs and the third addresses
“what” should be regarded as cognition (i.e., constitution theme argues that the
environment is part of cognitive processing)
Examples of Constitution: Clark and Chalmers Thought Experiment
Imagine two individuals: Inga, a normally functioning individual with a full memory capacity, and
Otto, who has Alzheimer’s disease, resulting in a memory deficit
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COGSCI Thursday March 19, 2015
Both hear about an exhibition in the museum of modern art, a place they have both previously
visited. Upon hearing about the exhibition, Inga must pause to consult her memory to recall if
the museum is on 53rd Street.
Otto, on the other hand, due to his memory deficit, must consult his notebook, in which all of
his information is stored.
Thus, Otto’s notebook acts in place of his biological memory and store of non-occurrent beliefs.
Clark and Chalmers argue that the notebooks is a constituent of cognition for Otto, just as Inga’s
neural memory is a constituent of cognition for her.
Where do we draw the line?
As cognitive scientists, we are interested in problems that relate to cognition, including:
oPerception
oProblem solving, learning, intelligence
oLinguistics
oNeurological elements
oPhilosophy (ex. Philosophy of the mind)
Questions relevant to cognitive science may be similar to:
oHow do our bodies influence emotion?
oHow can we use the sense-act paradigm to build robotic agents?
oHow do embodied interactions with the environment impact language learning?
Embodied Cognition
Researchers study cognition from these various fields with an emphasis on the environment and
the body
Loosely, can be divided into two camps:
oAI and Robotic Cognition
oHuman Cognition
Robotics:
Traditional Approaches
Traditional approaches to building robotics:
oUse the PS approach (symbolic representation, intelligent search)
Ex. SHRDLU, virtual robot; SHAKEY, a physical robot
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