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CHEM 1004
Gerald Buchanan

CHEM 1004- Day 1 Definitions] • Acute: brief,intense,severe vs. chronic: not severe,long lasting • Carcinogenic:causes cancer vs. teratogenic: causing birth defects • Euphoria: state of exaggerated well being • Peripheral: at the extremities • Peristalsis: rythmic motion of GI system in digestion • Syndrome;signs and symptoms associated with a disease • Synergistic: working together to give super additive effects • Tachycardia:abnormally fast heart rate vs.bradycardia: slow • Renal:pertaining to kidneys • Visceral: pertaining to internal organs • Febrile: feverish • Emetic: drug that induces vomiting • Antipyretic :drug that reduces fever • Analgesic:drug that reduces pain Prefixes and Suffixes • Hyper :more than normal vs. hypo :less • Cardio:related to heart • Gastro:related to GI system (often stomach) • Myo:muscle • Intra: within • Inter:between • Poly:many • Dys: painful,bad,difficult • Osteo:pertaining to bone ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • -emia :in or of the blood • -itis : inflammation of • -ectomy:incision or removal of a part • -algia:pain in a part –ie neuralgia (nerve pain) • -uria: in or of the urine Pharmacodymanics: studies drug actions and effects Pharmacokinetics: studies rates of change of drug concentrations in the body and includes rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of a drug What is a drug? • Any absorbed substance that changes or enhances any physical or psychological function in the body • Of course, in reality, the word drug has different meanings, depending on the situation-ie street drugs “dope” vs. medicinal drugs Drug Dependence and Addiction • Addiction can be viewed as the extreme on a continuum of involvement with drug use • Occasional use -> frequent use -> physiological dependence -> compulsive use- > overwhelming involvement : addiction Criteria for Addiction • Upon termination of the drug’s use, the addict suffers through a withdrawal syndrome (abstinance syndrome) • This withdrawal crisis can be ended at any time with readministration of the drug • Physiological changes in the addict’s body require the drug for normal existence (cf. a diabetic requires insulin for normal existence) • Addicts develop a tolerance for the drug, so that ever-increasing doses are required to achieve the desired effect Three types of Drugs producing withdrawl syndrome • 1. Depressants : alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates • 2. Opiates: heroin, morphine, methadone • 3. Stimulants: cocaine, amphetamines,caffeine Placebo Effect: Double Blind Studies • 50% of trial patients receive a placebo • 50% receive real drug • Neither group knows which • Compare results • In some cases (particularly pain killers) placebo effect can be 30-40% Chemotheraphy • The planned attack on a disease using a specific chemical designed for the purpose st • Paul Erlich (1854-1915) discovered 1 agent Salvarsan, for the treatment of syphilis • Other forms of treatment not involving chemicals • (a) holistic medicine: considers emotional, spiritual & psychological factors • (b) herbal treatments: some
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