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CHEM 2800 (2)

Environmental Chemistry Lecture Notes Summary

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CHEM 2800
J.David Miller

Solubility of oxygen • Dependant on temperature: Greater in colder water than in hotter • Dependant on partial pressure of oxygen in the air: Henry’s Law ρ=K ∗xO2 O2 where K is Henry’s law constant for oxygen in water x is the mole fraction of oxygen in oxygen-saturated water ρ O2P (P O2 tot H2O) Henry’s law constant is the ratio of concentration of a compound in gas phase, to the concentration in aqueous phase • Higher air pressure means means higher partial pressure of oxygen • Oxygen slips into spaces between the hydrogen bonds of water molecules Bound pesticide methods Toxicology Terms Disease burden is the impact of a health issue measured by economic factors, mortality, morbidity, etc. Adjusted life years are the measure of a disease burden; they are adjusted for quality and quantity of life years. Dose-response relationship • Within a population the majority of responses are similar. Some individuals are susceptible and others resistant • Normally distributed • The point at which an effect toxicity first appears is the threshold • LD50: Lethal dose killing 50% of the population, used to describe acute toxicity, requires lots of tests over a broad range of concentrations • Effective dose: the curve along which an effect is first noticed among a certain percentage of the population • NOAEL: Highest dose at which an adverse effect was not observed • LOAEL: Lowest dose at which an effect was observed (use data points, not curve) Log P • Indicative of the solubility of a chemical in water based the concentrations of a substance in the octanol and water partitions of a two-phase system at equilibrium. • In hydrogeology it is known as K ow • Kow1 Highly soluble in water, hydrophilic • Kow4 will lead to toxic build-up of compounds in fatty tissues Log Koc • Log Koc<1.5 negligible sorption to soil, rapid migration to ground water • Log Koc>4.5 very strong sorption to soil, negligible migration to ground water CEPA – Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1988 Focusses on preventing pollution, establishes guidelines for controlling toxic substances which bioaccumulate, are persistent and result from human activity. Priority Substances List (PSL) • Have or may have an immediate or long term harmful effect on the environment or biological diversity • Constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends • Constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health Klimisch Criteria is a method of assessing the reliability of toxicology studies 1. Reliable without restriction: test procedure according to national standards 2. Reliable with restrictions: acceptable, meets basic scientific principles 3. Not reliable: method not validated, does not meet sta
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