March 14 , 2014
Presacyatics: speculate upon the origin of existence
The earliest/most important philosophers:
1. Thieles: very well travelled in the Greek world, had a scientific interest (cosmopolitan
knowledge) – he thought that everything was made of water on which the world floated.
All matter had a unity and was made of the same thing.
2. Anaximander: he was the first to write and he speculated there was a basic substance to
everything (boundless). Conceives the idea of infinity.
3. Anaximenes: primary substance was air – turned into fire, water, earth, and stone. Certain
degree of the rejection of the divine – existence is either imagined or covered by
mechanical laws (challenge the idea of creation and existence).
4. Heraclitus: fire was the essence of all things, and things were always changing