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Carleton University
Classical Civilization
CLCV 1002

February 2ndCreation of the world Chaos which is a void From the void came Gaia earth and eros which is desire Gaia spontaneously creates Ouranos which is the sky and he is male He becomes the first king of heaven The rest of the creations come into being through sexual reproductionGreek religion is polytheisticOlympian gods are associated with mount Olympus and the Greeks believed the major gods in their religion lived there These gods are immortalThe Cthonic gods are associated with the earth hades persephone these were gods beneath the earth or the underworld Cthonic gods have cyclical death and rebirth rather than linear livesThe most important of the gos had multiple functions on earth The 12 olympians were all gods of something Some were patrons of medicine or wild animals or travelers When you wanted something done you had to pray to the god that was relevent to the subject of your prayer1 Gods have EpithetsA god may have many different rolesAthenapolias patronPromachosgoddess who fights out in frontParthenos virginErgane patron of the crafts2 Gods are anthropomorphichumanshapedPhysically but physically they are perfect socially and psychologically like humansSocially the gods are very much like humans They are not morally above humans they are very alike humans someone does something wrong they make it right ex hermes steals cattle from Apollo He gives Apollo the Lyre in return Psychologically the gods have all the same qualities as men jealousy etc How do the gods differ from humans They are more powerfulphysically and they have supernatural powers They are also immortalhumanismOne one hand the gods are just like humans Over time the Greeks begin to think the gods should reflect the ideals of humanitythey should be held to higher standardsPessimismHumans are play toys of the gods Many Greeks viewed each generation before them as better and thought humanity was getting worse and worse Gods Zeus bright sky The most important god He had both cthonic and olympian traits although he rules on mt olympus He is the symbol of male fertility The male fertility principal is not eternal rain comes and goes So in this understanding he is cthonic He is responsible for keeping order in the cosmos He is KING of all the gods He also represented the ideal form of government patron of justice and oaths He also oversees xenia hospitality Hera lady Almost always portrayed as nagging and obnoxious She is the goddess of marriage Every year in every city state there would be a festival of Gamelia marriage Marriage was important in Greece it was the only way to have LEGAL heirs She was also the goddess of childbirth the rold of every Greek woman Hera was queen of heaven and therefore had hue authority and power She is the only other diety besides Zeus who is ever portrayed in a throne
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