roman studies terms 4.doc

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CLCV 1003 – Terms 4 – Class of Friday, October 121
Early Latin Literature 2
:
Ennius: (239-169 BC)
- known as the “man of three hearts” because he knew 3 languages; his native Oscan
(challenged Latin at the time), Greek, and Latin.
-He was the ‘father of Latin poetry’, and wrote many tragedies and a few comedies, but
his works survive only in fragments.
-Wrote Annales; a history in dactylic hexameter that started from the founding of Rome
and went to Ennius’s own time, it omitted the first Punic war but included the 2nd, which
he served in
Plautus: (254-184 BC)
-wrote comedies exclusively, 20 of which survive
-his Menaechmi (or Brothers Menaechmus) is the source for Shakespeare in his Comedy
of Errors and more modernly The Boys from Syracuse
-his works also provided the basis for A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
Terence: (185-159 BC)
-wrote his first comedy the Andria when he was only 19
-when he died at age 26 he had written five more, all 6 of his comedies survive
-Unlike Plautus, Terence did not write for a living, he had patrons who supported him, so
he wrote for the patrons (Plautus wrote to please the masses)
-this enabled Terence to write comedies that were more sophisticated and less humorous
Golden Age Latin Literature 3
History 4
Caesar: (102-44 BC)
-
Livy
Oratory, Letters, Philosophy 5
Cicero: (106-43 BC)
-almost exact contemporary of Julius Caesar
-has 60 surviving oratories, about many notable figures (flaws, strengths, weaknesses
etc.)
-campaigned to become Consul (did in 64 BC) and discovered plot to overthrow the
constitution
-Catiline Orations: series of orations denouncing Catiline (man who was part of
conspiracy to overthrow the constitution, along with followers)
-900 letters (both sent and received by Cicero) survive and are a good source of candid
1 There were no terms for Friday, October 5, University Day: No classes.
2 Cf. Kamm, pp. 152-154
3 Cf. Kamm, pp. 155-164
4 Cf. Kamm, pp. 166-167
5 Cf. Kamm, p. 170
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information about the time
-some 20 of Cicero’s philosophical works survive, though some of them are fragmentary
-his philosophical works are his weakest and least influential works
Poetry as Science
Lucretius: (99-55 BC)
-his philosophy goes back to Epicurus (his philosophy follows Epicurean Philosophy:
harmony of the body and mind; pleasure, ones goal in life)
-writes the Atomic Theory with this in ”On the Nature of Things” (De Rerum Naturai)
-is written in 6 books (unfinished, hexameter poetry, beginning with invocation to Venus
Lyric Poetry : that in which the composer presents his or her personal thoughts
or feelings (originally accompanied by lyre)
Catullus: (85-53 BC)
-left 116 poems of various lengths
-most famous poems are to a woman he called ‘Lesbia’ ( not real name, was a prominent
aristocratic woman 10 years his senior married to a prominent man)
Horace: (65-8 BC)
-best known for his 4 books of Odes about himself and the social life of Rome in the age
of Augustus
Pastoral, Didactic, & Epic Poetry
Virgil : wrote the Aeneid which remains unfinished
Elegiac Poetry: strictly that which is composed in a poetic meter known as the
elegiac couplet
Propertius: (50-15 BC)
-wrote 4 books of elegies, the last 3 of which were influenced by the Mycenaeans
-most of it was written to his lover, Cynthia
Ovid: (43BC-AD18)
-wrote love poems, the Amores in 3 books, and a 3 book mock didactic called the Ars
Amatoria (or The Art of Love)
-one of his most noteworthy poems is the Metamorphoses, an epic in hexameter verse
-we owe much of what we know of ancient Greek and Roman gods to Ovid
-his love poetry was an offence to Augustus’s moral reforms and so Ovid was banished in
AD 8 to Tomis on the north-central coast of the Black Sea (in modern Romania) where
he died
Dactylic Hexameter6
Dactyl: one long and two short syllables ( -- x x )
Spondee: two long syllables ( -- -- )
6 Cf. Kamm, pp. 148-152
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