CLCV 1003 Lecture 2: Early Rome and the Roman Republic I

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September 8, 2015
Early Rome and the Roman Republic I
Terminological Confusion
The third century BCE = from 300 to 201 BCE
The first century BCE = from 100 to 1 BCE (3rdC)
Bronze Age (3000-900 BCE)
-Villanovan and Latial cultures
-Archaeological evidence:
burial remains (urns)
not good settlement remains (spears, weaving)
Iron Age/Archaic Period (9th-5th century BCE)
-Greek colonization in southern Italy
-masses of people leaving Greece and colonizing in Sicily
-Magna Graecia . “Great Greece”
-Cumae: important areas near Naples and Pompeii
-Nestors Cup 750-700 BCE
-Homer and the Iliad and the Oddessey = foundation for Greek literature and culture
-Etruria and Latia
-City of Rome on the border
Iron Age Italian Languages
-Etrusian
-Oscan (Samnites)
-Umbrian
-Latin
-Venetic
-Raetic
-Messapic
-Faliscan
Descent into Mytho-History
-understood from at least 3rdC BCE
-written out for us by the authors Livy, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Plutarch, Ovid
-written 750 years after the events
Remus and Romulus
-8thC BCE
-Rhea Silvia (sworn to chastity)
-Becomes pregnant (raped or children of Mars)
-Remus and Romulus suckled by Lupa (“wolf”/“prostitute”)
-Found by Faustulus and raised into men
-Grow up, kick uncle out of throne, exile him
-Found their own kingdom (Rome)
-Remus wants to found the city on the Aventine hill, Romulus on the Palatine hill
-augury (let the birds decide who’s right)
-Remus sees 6 then Romulus sees 12
-Romulus builds wall, Remus tries to cross (either struck dead or brings an army or man to man)
-Romulus kills Remus (fratricide)
-Rape and intervention of the Sabine women
-Romulus agrees to share power with the Sabine king
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September 8, 2015
-“7 hills of Rome”
-21 April 753 BCE or urbs condita
The “Regal Period”
-by 616ish BCE, Etrusian kings ruled Rome
-Tarquinius Superbus: tyrant, executes people without trial
-Rape of Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius
“my wife is the bestest because she is beautiful and dutiful”
guys decide to test which wife if the best
find them drinking with the slaves while they are gone
go to Collatinus’ house and find Lucretia weaving
Luctritia goes to bed, Sextus Tarquinius comes to her home and rapes her
commits suicide out of guilt
exile Sextus Tarquinius and start a new government
-509 BCE - “Etruscan” kings expelled from Rome
-Lucius Junius Brutus leads a revolt, becomes the first elected consul
Important Baggage from the “Regal Period”
-kings are bad
-“the people” will rule more justly
Why such a strange series of events in a foundation myth?
-Because it was Greek anti-Roman propaganda
-Because it was extremely old
-It helped justify the structure of Roman government and reflected internal struggles
-It reflects cultural duality of Roman foundation
Etruscan name PYMEΛE (Rumele) and Greek
Archaeological Evidence
-Lapis Niger
“black stone” > written in about 700 BCE
Archaic version of Latin language and script
uses the word “king”
kept in the main square of the city and venerated
-the “Hut of Romulus” on the modern day Paletine hill
The Birth of the Republic (509 BCE)
-“checks and balances” governmental structure
-king replaced by 2 men, consuls who were elected annually
-various levels of government > both elected and appointed, with varying terms of office
Patricians and Plebeians
-Patrician > claims direct descent form the founders of Rome
-Plebeians do not
-has nothing to do with wealth
Struggle of the Orders
-494 BCE plebeians create their own voting assembly with their own elected officials (tribunes)
-451 BCE Twelve Tables > first set of laws
-367 BCE Lex Licinia Sextia > wealthy plebeians can be elected to office
-300 BCE Lex Ogulnia > allows plebeians to enter major priesthoods
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