CLCV 1003 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Pater Familias

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The Roman Household
Roman domus
-the home (physically, and in terms of the people)
-an “atrium” house
-flexible in the functionality of its space, moved according to season
-fauces > entrance
-seems like front doors would have been open most of the time
-hole in the ceiling for rainwater and light
Members of the domus
-male and female heads of household
-their children
-other relatives who may live with them
-the slaves of all these people
-eldest free male head of the household
-holds patria potestas > paternal power
-power over everyone in the household
-right to decide who lives and who dies
Women of the Household
-under whose authority does she fall?
-mariage cum manu (with the hand) - VERSUS - marriage sine manu (without the hand)
-“I take your hand in marriage”
-hand > authority transfers from father to husband
-financial authority
-remain under patria potestas until father dies, can inherit his property
-hand transfers to uncle, a bit freer
-only men could divorce or women under sine manu, children stay under fathers authority
-women under sine manu part of fathers household, not husband’s > political marriage rather than love
-woman married cum manu has to transfer her worship of household gods to his
-tombstones for a wife engraved with messages of love
-birth announcements painted on the walls on Pompeii
-pride in birth of children
-high mortality rate
Emperor Augustus
-moral reform and familial legislation (18 BCE - 9 CE)
-laws regarding family life and fertility
-made to crate order in a period of chaos
-encouraged higher class people ot have children
-places restrictions on who people can marry
-senatorial people are not allowed to marry freedpeople
-freeborn people are not allowed to marry prostitutes, former prostitutes, actresses, or adulteresses
-adultery illegal
-penalties for remaining unmarried > man receive only half of their inheritance
-tax breaks for being engaged (must marry after 2 years), having more than 3 children
-if a woman has more than 3 children she is released form her fathers authority
-more respect for people who have more children
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