CLCV 2305 Lecture 3: CLCV-Lecture 3

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End of topic 8a power point today
Looking at Mediterranean triad
Ancient technology has not changed but our ability to access that has improved a lot
o Facts provided 15 years ago have been disproven already on topics like antikythera
mechanism
When doing research look to newest ideas and publications and then look at their sources
plowing
o Ard - Start with sharp stucks and then put in L shape with leather straps
o Later tied the plough to animals with yolk but the yolk went around their necks and killed
the animals
Did’t realize util later to put aroud hest rather tha ek
o Reconstruction of Greek plow
Only metal parts remain
Blade taps down seed
Art is not accurate - it is representational and abstractive
Writers tell how these things were built and what they look like
o All wood for all examples of greek and roman plows are gone
o Wood has to be soaked in water long enough that they can be bent
Breakage almost always happens at bend point
o In roman plow shoe looks like the bottom of a boat
Someone can follow behind and tap with feet after putting the seed in rather than go
at same time
Roman is in 3 pieces so you can only replace 1 piece rather than all
You should keep parts for several plows so that you can keep rebuilding
Roas did’t stik to iro eause iron was better for tools (iron better for weapons)
o 22 meter papyrus
Top has next life paintings, bottom has what they are hoping to grow and prayers to
get that
Book of the dead spells to attain next life
Grafting
o Romans and Greeks had it but Egyptians did’t util after roas iaded
o Mosaic around reflecting pool
Lots of mosaics from this villa
1st half of 3rd c ad
After death of Marcus arelius
Cutting slits into trees and putting in slips and chutes
o Cutting slips from one plant/tree and putting them on others
Hard work of weeding was left to the women while the men did the planting
When wheat germinated there was no room for weeds because they packed it so tight
Dig furrows on sides of rows of plants so that you get weeds in a place you can scrape them out
and also the water collects
Was there marijuana in antiquity?
o Yes to about 2000 bce
o Lots of evidence of medical marijuana
o There was also hash in antiquity
Pruning hooks
o Mosaic of pruning hook
o Used at plant or tree that you could reach standing on ground
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Forged in single piece with hand grip
You could also put it on a stick to do pruning on a tree
o 2 examples 700 years apart are exact same tool
o When you look to technology available, you can see distinctions between every day use and
high end tools
o Roman Egyptian tools show fast and cheap manufacturing
Attachment for "tool belt"
o Provenience unknown mosaic
Greek lettering for autumn "therenius"
Her pruning hook is a stick of wood with a blade stuck into it
Earlies from time of Constantine, latest from fall of Rome
o Bituman is one of the earlies adhesive
Used in sickle to put blades on wood
o Early sickles were made of clay and molded thin at end to make sharp
o Papyrus reed sickle from Egypt with pieces of flint pushed in
You cant use it on a down stroak or the flint will fall out
After this sickle
o Khopesh was invented
o Documented in artistic evidence "papyrus of ani"
Egyptian army was not actually that well equipped
o Most of them were farmers and they had to bring their own weapons so they brought
mostly pruning tools
Did they have mechanical devices for harvesting
o Not really before the 1800s
o A good combine or thresher is necessary so you need good metals not made until later
They did have ancient reaping machines
o Only used on big agricultural farms
o Never that many big fields that have that much land
o There's also not a lot of flat land outside France, Sicily or north Africa
o sheers off top of the crop, fills up the bowl, stop and empty, start again
o Person behind the donkey will likely get kicked and have bones broken
Wheat lasts 5-10 years if it is in husk
o Chaf - breaking the husk
o Aloni - threshing circle
Put down reaped wheat and have animal walk over it
Or have a donkey pull a sledge (sled type thing with sharp rock on bottom
o In Greek play, generally 3 actors, the threshing floor is the chorus of the Greek drama
Chorus is almost always all female
Work of picking up the wheat was left to the women
o Ethnographical museum at gorton
Germans forced Cretans to grow grain and they took lots of photos
Sledge with stones and person
Sledge goes back to 1850s or 60s
o Process of winnowing
Break up chaff and throw it in the air
Young, strong backs picking up wheat after outer part has flown away,
Winnowing forks look like oversized fork made of wood
o Evidence of turning fields over in winter
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