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Cognitive Science
CGSC 1001
Deirdre Kelly

MEMORY 2012-10-10 REVIEW What is cognitive Science? -Interdisciplinary approach to studying intelligence in humans, animals and machines. It is dealing with the question of how we know what we know. What are the significant historical periods of cognitive science? -Prior to 19th century: Philosophical period: Plato Descartes, Rationalism vs. Empiricism. -1879: Wilhelm Wundt- Study of consciousness using introspection. -Early-mid 20th century: Behaviorism- Watson, Pavlov, Skinner -Mid 20th century- Cognitive revolution- Turing, Miller, Artificial Intelligence, & Chomsky What are the disciplines of cognitive science? What are they? What kind of tools do they use? -Diagram? Which of these is not a tool used by philosophers? Protocol Analysis Thought experiment Analogy Conceptual analysis Which of these people are considered to be a Father of Cognitive Science: Francis Bacon Noam Chomsky Wilhelm Wundt B.F. Skinner Which of these methods was introduced and developed by B.F. Skinner? Introspection Classical conditioning Protocol analysis Operant conditioning Short Answer What are two of the disciplines that make up cognitive science Explain what they are and the types of tool? - What is THE question of cognitive science? -How do we know what we know According to Simon and Kaplan what is the goal of cognitive science? - What are the three different approaches to studying cognitive science? - ______________________________________________________________________ Memory  Atkinson and Shiffrin model (1968) Modal or multi-store memory system Vs. levels-of-processing model proposed by Fergus Craikand Robert Lockhart in 1972 EXAM ^ • Labels a diverse set of cognitive capacities by which we retail information and reconstruct past experiences, usually for present purposes. • Process of remembering • Your memory is really made up of a group of systems that each play a different role in creating, storing and recalling your memories. • Encoding is the 1st step in creating a memory. • Hippocampus and frontal cortex analyze and decide whether certain pieces of sensory input are worth encoding. • Hippocampus and frontal cortex are doing the work of sorting • 1st step toward encoding is to pay attention. Memory Systems: Sensory Memory • The ability to retain impressions of sensory information after original stimuli has ended. • Happens when we PERCEIVE something • Doesn't require conscious attention • Brief with degradation occurring after 500ms. • Sensory memory is passed to short-term by paying attention Short Term Memory ^ You are able to remember the #'s when they are separated into chunks rather then when they are given to you all at once. • A system allowing one to temporarily store and manage information that is necessary to complete complex cognitive tasks. • About 30 seconds ^ You are able to remember the #'s when they are separated into chunks rather then when they are given to you all at once. • A system allowing one to temporarily store and manage information that is necessary to complete complex cognitive tasks. • About 30 seconds • Holds info in mind so that we can work with it • Up t0 7 items (Miller, 1956) • Holds info in mind so that we can work with it • Up t0 7 items (Miller, 1956) Long Term Memory • Short-term memories are moved to long-term through consolidation which involves rehearsal and association. • Is semantically encoded. (meaning and association) • Memories are maintained by permanent changed in neural connections. Memory Retrieval • Brain replays a pattern of neural activity that was generated by the event of the original memory. • Storage occurs all across the brain • Speed of retrieval depends on how strong the neural pathways are. Explicit Memory Can be accessed verbally Declarative Memory: REMEMBERING THAT/WHAT Semantic Memory: Recall of fact Episodic Memory: • Autobiographical memory • Personally experienced and remembered events of a lifetime Implicit Memory • Happens at a unconscious level where prior experiences aid in the performance of a task even though you are not aware of those experiences. • PROCEDURAL MEMORY: Remembering how • Created by repeating complex tasks over and over again Memory Deterioration Age- related memory impairment: Episodic memory is highly impaired as we age. • Possibly caused by a binding a retrieval issue associated with a loss of nerve cells in the hippocampus. • Contributing factors to memory loss include: Poor diet, B12 deficiency, depression, anxiety and stress. Amnesia General term for a conviction in which memory is disturbed or lost. (Either stored memories or the process of committing something to memory) • Neurologically or psychologically caused • Anterograde Amnesia: The ability to memorize new things is impaired. • Retrograde Amnesia: Preexisting memories are lost. • Clive Wearing-1985- Only has short-term and procedural memory How can musicians keep playing despite amnesia?: Henry Molaison (Patint HM) • Had medical temporal lobe resection surgery for epilepsy • Intact working and procedural memories. Declarative memory no longer could commit new information • Was studied by Brenda Milner (including the removal of the hippocampal formation and most of the amygdala complex). Anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia • HM helped to show that there is a difference between implicit and explicit memory systems by showing that he could do tasks well that he had no memory of having done before. As demonstrated by his performance on the Tower of Hanoi Patient KC • Suffered damage to the medial temporal lobes as a result of motorcycle accident. Including bilateral hippocampal loss • Able to recall factual information, but was unable to recall episodic memory • Subject to priming effect, blanked, out word task recall after a year of priming. • Priming is the effect in which exposure to a stimulus influences response to a subsequent stimulus PERCEPTION 2012-10-10 REVIEW What is memory? -Labels a diverse set of cognitive capacities by which we retain information and reconstruct past experiences, usually for present purposes. What are the various systems that make up memory? Which of these are considered declarative memory? a) Semantic memory b) Procedural memory c) Sensory Memory d) None of the above What is a form of implicit memory? a) Semantic memory b) Episodic memory c) Procedural memory- Memory of how we do things. Ex. Riding a bike d) Sensory memory What is the Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory? Why is memory not like a file cabinet? PERCEPTION 2012-10-10 Because everything is not neatly organized into files. Not stored nicely in one section of the brain. Our memories can change over time. If it were like a filing cabinet it would be the exact same information and the information will stay the same. What is the primacy effect? -Given serial numbers, will remember 1st and last numbers opposed to the middle #'s What are 3 causes of memory deterioration? 1. Aging 2. Diet 3. Stress/Anxiety What is Perception? • The organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to fabricate a mental representation through the process of transduction, which sensors in the body transform signals from the environment into encoded neural signals. • It's how we understand the world. We are building representations using stimuli using info available through senses. What are we perceiving? • Vision -> Perception of light PERCEPTION 2012-10-10 • Audition -> Perception of air vibrations • Haptics -> Perception of physical pressure (Basically sense of touch) • Olfaction and Gustation -> Perception of chemicals • The Receptive Field is the part of the world to which a receptor organ (retina, ear, nose, tongue...) can respond. How do we study perception? • Experimental psychology- STROOP TASK • Psychophysics- "scientific study of the relation between stimulus and sensation" • Sensory neuroscience- looking at how we perceive things • Philosophy- Perceptions real or in the mind? What is perception for? • For knowledge (Flodor, 1968) • For directing action? (Faulin and McDurney, 2003) -Senses are evolutionary adaptations and perceptions give up advantages. SENSES CHALLENGE f How does vision work? • When light enters the eye, it first passes through the cornea, then the aqueous humor, lens and vitreous humor. PERCEPTION 2012-10-10 • It reaches the retina which contains two types of cells, called rods and cones. Rods handle vision in low light, and cones handle color vision and detail. When light contacts these two types of cells, a series of complex chemical reactions occurs. • The chemical that is formed creates electrical impulses in the optic nerve. • The nerves reach the optic chasm and these fibers eventually reach the back of the brain (occipital lobe). This is where vision is interpreted and is called the primary visual cortex. Some of the visual fibers go to other parts of the brain to help to control eye movements, response of the pupils and iris, and behavior. • Generally, the outer segment of rods are long and thin, whereas the outer segment of cones are more, well, cone shaped Colour Blindness • Is the inability to differentiate between colours. • Most common type is red-green colour blindness. • 8 % or makes and 0.4 % of females. • Occurs when either the red or green cones are not present or not functioning properly. People with this problem are not completely unable to see red or green but often get confused with the two colours. Change Blindness • Is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when a change in visual stimulus goes unnoticed by the observer. • Example, an individual fails to notice a difference between two images that are identical except for one change. The reasons these changes usually remain unnoticed by the observer include obstructions in the visual field, eye movements, a change of location, or a lack of attention. Audition • Ear senses the fluctuations in air pressure • Pinna directs sounds waves into hearing part of the ear • Translate these fluctuations into an electrical signal that you brain can understand. • Brain is then able to determine where a sound is coming from by comparing the info from the 2 ears. • We can hear 20Hz to 20,000Hz PERCEPTION 2012-10-10 • Dogs on the other hand 40Hz to 60kHz • Your brain determines the horizontal position of a sound by comparing the information coming from your two ears. If the sound is to your left, it will arrive at your left ear a little bit sooner than it arrives at your right ear. It will also be a little bit louder in your left ear than your right ear. Echolocation (SONAR) • Eg. Shark in the ocean hearing a small fish • Sonar is simply making use of an echo. When an animal or machine makes a noise, it sends sound waves into the environment around it. Those waves bounce off nearby objects, and some of them reflect back to the object that made the noise. It's those reflected sound waves that you hear when your voice echoes back to you from a canyon. Whales and specialized machines can use reflected waves to locate distant objects and sense their shape and movement. Haptics (TOUCH) • Sense of touch originates from bottom layer of skin. This is called dermis, found all over the body. • Dermis, filled with many tiny nerve endings. These give you information about things that your body comes in contact with. PERCEPTION 2012-10-10 • Carrying the information to spinal cord, which sends information to the brain where the feeling is registered. Touch Technology: -Touchscreens and touch-sensitive surfaces with haptic feedback give product designers greater flexibility. Since touchscreen devices aren't tied to any particular layout, they can be reconfigured for each application, yet still offer the sensory feedback of physical knobs and buttons. At this year's Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, 3M and automotive technology supplier Visteon demonstrated a concept vehicle with haptic controls that only appear when the driver's hand approaches them. Link How Haptics Will Change the Way We Interact With Machines - Popular Mechanics Gustation (TASTE) • When you eat, saliva in your mouth helps to break down the food. • Causes receptor cells (located in taste buds) to send msg's through sensory nerves to your brain. • Brain says what flavours you're tasting. • When you eat something, the saliva in your mouth helps break down your food. This causes the receptor cells located in your tastes buds to send messages through sensory nerves to your brain. Your brain then tells you what flavors you are tasting.Taste buds probably play the most important part in helping you enjoy the many flavors of food. Your taste buds can recognize four basic kinds of tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The salty/sweet taste buds are located near the front of your tongue; the sour taste buds line the sides of your tongue; and the bitter taste buds are found at the very back of your tongue. Everyone's tastes are different. In fact, your tastes will change as you get older. When you were a baby, you had taste buds, not only on your tongue, but on the sides and roof of your mouth. This means you were very sensitive to different foods. As you grew, the taste buds began to disappear from the sides and roof of your mouth, leaving taste buds mostly on your tongue. As you get older, your taste buds will become even less sensitive, so you will be more likely to eat foods that you thought were too strong as a child. What if you could not taste anything? Things like medications, smoking, not get
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