COMM 2001: September 23 rd
Humanity has been studied and understood in many different ways before such as through the gods,
nature and philosophy. We learned that we can measure the consequences of different stimuli through
our observation of animals and our relation to them.
Early Communication Research began in the early 19 century (From Darwin and similar scientists)
during the Industrial revolution.
The ideas of mass society correlated with the industrial revolution of mass production (bringing
people into the city to create these mass products such as factory work)
This resulted in a mass migration with a modernization of how people live their lives
Magic Bullet Theory: H.G. Wells War of the Worlds-1938
Communication has a direct effect and measureable effect like a bullet has on individuals
This led to propaganda films, and more use of the mass media
28% thought the radio broadcast was real, and researchers tried to figure out why this was the
figure (Research). When a common value is threatened we can measure the threat or response
that is likely to happen.
Payne Fund Studies: Large scale empirical studies of mass communications effects (13 projects) that
were done by Hollywood. They examined skin responses of people watching scary movies or their sleep
patterns after. It led to the conclusion that Hollywood needed to be conscious of what they were putting
on the screen.
Two Step Flow: Paul Lazersfeld- Election Campaigns & that we need to consider that mass media doesn’t
create different values or perspectives but it has a moderating effect. It reinforces pre-existing views
but it cannot change individuals already made perspecti