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COMM2001 January 20, 2014.docx

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Communication Studies
COMM 2002
Heather Pyman

What is content analysis? • Qualitative research strategy o Semiotics and ethnographic content analysis of imagines, conversations and texts • Interested more in that text as a construction of a group of individuals that are interested in study • Looking at newspapers as a production in society -> is institutional society • Looking at newspapers and articles -> constructions itself, placement, image, holistic approach to text itself, conveys a message more than just the manifest content and the information • Take a look at language and prominence • How is news framing this news for us? • Content analysis is a tool useable not just on written texts but at language as well, observation, ethnography • Quantitative research strategy o Approach to analysis of documents and texts o Quantifies content in terms of predetermined categories o Systematic and reliable • Way stories are told through use of images • Through poetry and music -> analyse all type of texts and mediums • Look at historial elements, broadcasts • Tool that helps us analyze all type of communication • Can use it in a quanitative way • Define a population of content • Randomly sample within that content • Look at stuff that will give us statistical relationships between elements of the past • Getting more into not just counting, but whether those specific texts, relationships reflect those population relations • Looking at that broadview and small number of texts in a detailed kind of way • Take every element of the text that we can and see if we can find meaning behind it • As qualitative researchers, we have to be open to the communicating properties of all text • As members of society, we go through life without a critical perspective • Listen to music and read certain literature • History o Late 1600s and the church o Max Weber: 1910 • Beginnings • Began to suggest that with proliferation of all the new mediums -> newspapers, radios, etc  Sociologists should develop some sort of tool to analyze this form of information o Walter Lippman: 1922 • Began Weber's works o WWII: Propaganda analysis • Method was used widely and grew in its usability • Offices of propaganda that were looking at how to engage their own citizens • Research was done on posters that were produced • When they were looking for people to buy war bonds or enlist in army, came up with strategies they were looking for to have a specific effect • Made movies that they showed to new recruits and were interested in measuring effects and effectiveness of strategies • Interested in the effects the enemies had for communicating perspectives on enemies • How they were using different tools to give misinformation to citizens like in France and Poland and places in Europe • Interested in radio production • Germans were producing radio shows that were picked up in allied countries  Told that the allied forces were losing the war -> thinking that they were going to win  Allies were interested in looking at what kind of effects they would have  Allies would drop leaflets in other countries -> lots of misinformation and other o Bernard Berelson: 1952 • Content analysis of a textbook • In early days, it was all quantities o George Gerbner: 1968 • Largest piece of analysis o 1980's telvision CA • Movies started in the 1960s with start of some publishing • Very violent time in US history • Why is this society so violent? o 1980's: Today • Used to entertainment that were our primary focus on content analysis and information • Elaboration of Use o Historians • Analyze texts of civilizations that are no longer available in our society • Letters, books, things in society • Turn our ability to critically analyze books themselves to understand how society uses it to analyze • Society uses content analysis o Psychologists • Whole of batters of indecies that they create from texts • Look at personal documents, things that individuals have written, look at syntax and measures in this documents to come up with things • Developed different batteries to analyze the different syntax to know about them from a psychological perspective o Political analysts o Mass communication • Communication takes many different forms, can be institutional communication and different other types of communication • When we are creating mediums and sending them out, then we can understand how that society keeps itself together by analyzing those specific texts • Uses of CA in Communications o Describing communication content of a text o Testing hypothesis • Are there differences between a and b? • Description part of communication content • Different texts communicate in different way • Ex. Female vs. male journalist portraying something • Ex. How people from different countries have different perspectives o Comparing media content to real world • One of the issues is how is what we are exposed to, how accurate is it in reflecting the real world? • Is everything portrayed realistically? • Is this reflective of the real world? • Violent act of shooting someone in our perception of it -> there is a perception of it and the glory of the impact on the real world • Physical act of shooting someone is not at all what would be like if you shot someone at a certain distance o Assessing images of groups in society • Cartoons for example, have good guy and bad guy, what does the good guy or bad guy look like? • How is a constructed image of good and evil constructed? • Look at Disney movies • Need to understand how they are being portrayed • See images of African Americans in different roles, sports, etc. o Examining media content as a starting point of examining media efforts • Look at how specific frames are developed to tell a different story, how can we unwrap this frame and understand the effect that the image or effect has on society? • With a particular frame, we understand that different frames are using different things • All about type of language or people who are used in the source • Research questoins o What are the goals of the research • Must be clearly specified before analysis • "why is this important? • How can we use this content analysis  What do we hope to accomplish?  Need to specify it • Idea of broader social relevance, should have some sort of purpose o The questions determine
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