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COMM 2002 (65)
Lecture 2

Week 2

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Department
Communication Studies
Course
COMM 2002
Professor
Heather Pyman
Semester
Winter

Description
Content Analysis ­ Qualitative research strategy: semiotics and ethnographic content analysis of  images, conversations, and text o Group of individuals’ production (ie. Newspaper is an institutional  production) ­ Quantitative research strategy: approach to analysis of documents and texts,  quantifies content in terms of predetermined categories, systematic and reliable History of content analysis ­ Late 1600’s and the church ­ 1910: Max Weber ­ 1922: Walter Lippman ­ WWII: propaganda analysis o Looked at how to engage their own citizens, research looking at the  posters and the effectiveness of each, then the radio ­ 1952: Bernard Berelson o Father of content analysis, laid out how to conduct it ­ 1968: George Gerbner o Turbulent time, Vietnam war, Violent shows, had a strong influence on  large masses ­ 1970: Television  ­ 1980: Today Use of Content analysis ­ Historians o Letter that Hitler wrote, artifacts and records from old societies that we  can study to help us understand how they previously interpreted the world  around them ­ Psychologists o Personal documents that individuals have written, come up with measures  for their expressions and come up with a profile for them ­ Political analysts ­ Mass communication Use of CA in communications ­ Describing communication content of a text o How is sex being portrayed in soap operas? ­ Testing hypotheses o Is there a difference in the content between X and Y ­ Comparing media content to the real world o Are relationships portrayed realistically in the media? ­ Assessing images of groups in society ­ Examine media content as a starting point for examining media effects ­ Research Questions ­ What are the goals of the research o Must be clearly specific before analysis ­ The questions determine… o Which dimensions of texts to quantify?  News coverage of an issue: who, what, how much, where, and  why?  Different newspapers: the trends?   National vs. Local o How many different views are represented? o What is selected for inclusion? o Omissions: what is not reported? Selecting Texts ­ Define the total range of content – the universe o Which types of text?  Printed or visual data? Documents? Mass Media?
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