Lecture 2: January 16 2014 th
• Proposal, 2 pages due Feb 6 (5%)
• Paper should be 1012 pages
• March 13, 2014 worth 30%
• 2 pages in length, project should reflect equivalent of 1012 pages worth of written text. (In theatre, 1 page
text= one minute)
• March 13, 2014 worth 30%
objective: enable nonspecialist readers to appreciate
Foundations of the topic you find interesting and important, in terms of form and content
The various aspects (aesthetic, biographical, historical, economic and political) that may be crucial to the
Grading: regardless, of format, they’re looking for the following CORE ELEMENTS OF GOOD RESEARCH
• Does project/ paper articulate a clear thesis statement?
• Does the project/ paper provide evidence of research into the topic?
• Does the project/paper clearly analyze the topic in a way that answers or elucidates the thesis?
• Is the argument clear? • Does the project deal directly with elements related to the course?
• APA or MLA (both projects should have list of works cited)
• Multiculturalism as a cultural institution
• Lang as cultural institution
• Defining Canada’s cultural identity
• Evolution of Canadian pop music, film, TV outside of the “institution”
Canadian identity and internet
• Cultural globalization
Culture in Canada
• Amateur theatricals
• Vaudeville (1917 formed, trenches, theatre to bolster morale during war)
• Semiprofessional and professional music
• Radio becoming prevalent (late 192030s)
“God help the minister who meddles with art” British PM, Lord Melbourne (in office 18371841)
If they give too much, criticized. Too little, criticized.
Pick wrong art? Don’t pick one? Censorship
LOSE LOSE situation National Approaches PreMassey
• Nationalization of Art in the early 1900s creating institutions (Toronto symphony 1920), National Galery of
Canada (est 1880, 1913)
• Diamond Jubilee of Confederation (1927) Dominion Drama Festival (1932)
Well attended and promoted (if it was British model they had support)
• Carnegie and Rockefeller funded the arts in Canada (wanted to aid international culture around the world
so they had so much money, they were just giving it)
• Federal govt originally only wanted to support painting and sculptures only (group of seven)
Funding and support were very distinctly different, nowadays its synonymous
• Later on, federal govt willing to assosicate funding fro media over traditional things because of possibility
of being on USA culture
• Rideau hall hung paintings in wall, host musical program (build specific kind of art in Canada) so they’re
setting the standards of taste and excellence in Canada (british flaire)
• National govt is the only sponsored arts organization
• WWII – events linked the cultivation of arts with the national concern for wartime unity.
• Underdevelopment of Canada’s culture was becoming an international embarrassment.
• Carnegie Corporation funded a meeting of the Conference of Canadian Artists (Canada Council of the
Funded by Carnegie (put pressure on conference organizaers for the need of federal aid) and this is VIP
Federation of Canadian Artists (The brief concerning the cultural aspects of Canadian reconstruction)
These things were wrong (women in workforce) etc and they wanted govt funding. Presented brief in HofC
and it was received positively (Canadian council OF the arts 1945 founding of national arts body for first
time in Canada) • Creation of UNESCO: Int’l body (science, education, culture)
Nov 19 , we sent Vincent Massey to UNESCO
• Social Engineering of Culture
Leads to political ideology of the arts (echoing Canadian elites) aka people from GB who had money
Develop Canadian virtues and morals (shared)
Canadian artists weren’t convinced and Canadian society too
• Laissezfaire principle toward state involvement in social issues
• Canadian Council for the Arts & Carnegie Corporation encouraged state support of the arts
Elites wanting to social engineer culture and there are people who don’t care and then artists have been
told that they can only survive off of state funding
“Mad desire to bring about state control and interference beyond all bounds ”
William Lyon Mackenzie King
Carnegie etc push govt to fund/ think about culture
King rejected idea, St Laurent liked it (1949 formed Royal commission on national development in the arts,
letters and sciences speech from the throne)
The Massey Commission
• Royal Commission – Vincent Massey, chairman.
Chairman, UNESCO dude, was an elite of country at the time, strong views fro nation building
• Commission members include Georgeshenri Levesque, Norman A.M. MacKenzie, Hilda Neatby, Arthur
Surveyer. Went across country!
• Two years of public hearings in 16 cities and all 10 provinces
• 1200 testimonials, received 462 briefs.
Govts nowadays don’t do royal commissions very much because they’re EXPENSIVE (pay them to travel)
what we do now we have consultations ONLINE and other mechanisms (Prebudget consultation report)
Talked to all kinds of folks
• The Massey Report was tabled in Parliament on June 1, 1951.
“The Artist and the Writer”: Section 15 (XV) of the Massey Report
• “No novelist, poet, short story writer, historian, biographer, or other writer of nontechnical books can make
even a modestly comfortable living by selling his [or her] work in Canada. No composer of music can live at
all on what Canada pays him[/her] for his[/her] compositions. Apart from radio drama, no playwright, and
only a few actors and producers, can live by working in the theatre in Canada. Few painters and sculptors,
outside the fields of commercial art and teaching, can live by sale of their work in Canada.”
This is 1951 and still true today in Canada
Conversation on public value (do these people have a right?)
The Massey Report
• Report included extensive recommendations
– Canadian Broadcasting
– National Film Board
– National Gallery
– Federal Archives
– Historic Sites
– Canada Council for the Arts • Massey said it needed state funding. You can’t randomly throw money, you must INSTITUTIONALIZE
THEM to things that are fundable
• Were largely picked up
• Went from public/ private funded, To be owned by govt (reliance of our culture and institutions on govt
We have problems as cultural institution people being entitled
We created a huge mess, there we have it
• Massey is the MOST IMPORTANT
Recap (After the break)
• Premassey: own thing
• Massey comes along: govt funded
• Carnegie: says you must be given govt money cause you no make money
• Massey does report and tells artists OMG YOU MAKE NO MONEY
• CRTC Quotas
• Cancon – Canadian content rules
• MAPL system to qualify Canadian content
– Music – Artist – Production – Lyrics
• Grant requirements • Shelf space: system of Canadian content quotas (telling them so and so much of it needs to be Canadian)
when they designed it, there wasn’t any internet (shelf?)
You must publish this much content
Symphony orchestra (how much Canadian content)
To qualify, you need only ONE of these MAPL things to be written by Canadian, artists, production:
broadcast live (Canadian)
• We’re participating in making it as fast as we can for USA culture (if one of those MAPL is Canadian)
Brian Adams didn’t qualify because he shared credit with GB person
Are we bumping out the people who NEED this funding with this laxness?
• Ensure greater exposure to Canadian marketplace
• High culture is built within grant requirements (if you do Canadian piece of theater, those tickets won’t sell)
they’ll balance it off with broadway show
• 35 per cent of all music aired each week on all AM and FM stations must be Canadian.
• 35 per cent of music broadcast between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. Monday through Friday must consist of
• Frenchlanguage radio stations are required to ensure that 65 per cent of the vocal music they broadcast
each week, and 55 per cent of vocal music broadcast between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. Monday through Friday, is
in the French language.
• Seven per cent of music aired on ethnic radio stations each week must be Canadian.
• Private television licensees generally must achieve a yearly Canadian content level of at least 60 per cent
• The CBC must ensure that at least 60 per cent of its program schedule between 6 a.m. and midnight
consists of Canadian productions.
Canadian Content on TV
• Criteria: – whether its producer and key creative personnel are Canadian;
– the amounts paid to Canadians for services provided to make the program; (if your timber dude is
Canada= maybe yes)
– The amounts spent in Canada on lab processing.
• Find loopholes to say things are “Canadian”
Model for Cultural Affirmation Framework II
• Respect for freedom of choice
• Promoting the creation of Canadian content
• Maintaining a “shelf space” for Canadian cultural products
• Developing a wide range of policies for different types of cultural undertakings
• Forging partnerships with the creators of arts and cultural products
A patron who’s supporting the arts not get financial return on it
Is it adhering to this notion of shelf space?
What is an Institution?
• a structure: both physically and not
• a collection: art, artefacts, stories (Anne of Green Gables)
• deliberate: specifically designed or appropriated by someone, state funding?
Cultural elites? Who decides what gets put into it? Do we decide our own? Can say every family